This work is the outcome of a research project on the application and enforcement of EU law by national judges. The project focused on the experiences of national judges in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) and the Netherlands and its aim is to understand the processes surrounding the application of EU law. Furthermore, the role of national judges as decentralized EU judges is examined. The research shows that EU law still has limited impact on the type of cases tried. The book makes several recommendations to foster the application of EU law.