Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMCGs) have been increasingly viewed as a threat to society. Members have been associated with disturbances of public order as well as various forms of organized crime. In response, the authorities in the Netherlands, Germany, and Belgium have each implemented their own zero-tolerance strategies to prevent and repress
outlaw biker crime and deviance. In the cross-border Meuse Rhine Euregion, where the three countries intersect, the national borders may provide opportunities to outlaw bikers while at the same time limiting authorities in their response. In examining the role of the border, this book deals with the history of OMCGs and the responses in each country, the authorities involved in the response, and contemporary problems in the Meuse Rhine Euregion.
This book is intended for policy makers and practitioners working in the field of organized crime and public disorder committed by outlaw bikers, especially those working in cross-border regions.
This text was presented as inaugural speech, held on the occasion of accepting the chair of Social Resilience and Security with a study focus on Violence and Interventions at Leiden University on May 30, 2022.
This volume contains the contributions of the 21st Cross-Border Crime Colloquium webinar hosted by the Norwegian Police University College, Kongsvinger and organised 22-24 August 2021. Despite the pandemic, the Colloquium Group decided to return to the `criminal normal' and the related research on (cross-border) organised crime, corruption, labour exploitation, fraud, ecological crime and the search for criminal revenues. These are partly old themes, some getting renewed attention, such as the hidden wealth of corrupt political elite, whether Nigerian godfathers or Russian oligarchs.
A criminal theme with global implications is the growing `greencriminality' or crime against the nature. Forests are illegally cut clear in Eastern Europe to satisfy the hunger of the European furniture industry: cheap furniture from stolen wood from the Carpathian or further east leaving behind devastated landscapes. Also, criminal waste traffi cking
from industrialised farming fi nding its way through criminal channels is a recognised cross-border organised crime.
In peer reviewed contributions international experts present a broad range of criminal phenomena and policies: from a 25-year review of organised crime in The Czech Republic, labour exploitation and Nigerian organised crime in Italy, Middle-Eastern criminal clans in Germany, and international fuel fraud to criminal asset recovery policy in the Netherlands.
Some frontline organizations presume that frontline command (defined as the direct supervision of frontline workers by frontline commanders) is required for frontline work to be effective. However, little scholarly effort has been devoted to investigate frontline command.
This thesis therefore investigates the effectiveness of frontline command in the police organization responsible for major criminal investigation and the response organization of the fire service. Several research methods are used to get a better understanding of the degree to which frontline command can be studied.
Contrary to the expectations of frontline organizations and many frontline commanders, the findings suggest that in current practice frontline commanders contribute to the effectiveness of frontline work only to a limited extent. However, in theory there is still a need for frontline command.This thesis suggests that frontline command can be appropriately studied and therefore calls for more empirical research to uncover the effects of frontline command and the degree to which it can be improved in practice. Implications for practice are provided.
In order to develop an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, the European Union is adopting measures to enhance international cooperation in criminal matters among the police and judicial authorities of its Member States. The adopted instruments concerning evidentiary matters, such as the gathering of evidence in another EU Member State, seem to serve the main purpose of assisting the authorities in investigating and prosecuting (cross-border) crime. This raises the question to what extent the defence is also given the possibility to gather information and materials in another EU Member State with the aim of preparing and presenting its case at trial and, in particular, whether the current (EU) legal framework on cross-border evidence gathering meets the requirements of the principle of equality of arms.
This book addresses these questions by, first of all, discussing the application of the principle of equality of arms, as enshrined in both Article 6 ECHR and Article 47 CFR, in cross-border criminal cases. Secondly, it provides an overview of the European treaties and legislation on cross-border evidence gathering to explain to what extent they give opportunities to the defence to request the assistance of foreign authorities in obtaining specific information and materials in another EU Member State, and also to participate in the execution of these requests.
In addition, in order to understand how the European treaties and legislation on cross-border evidence gathering are applied by the EU Member States, this book includes a comparative study of three national jurisdictions: the Netherlands, England and Wales, and Italy. Furthermore, it analyses the criminal justice system of the International Criminal Court, as a potential source of inspiration for new EU legislation to strengthen the ability of the defence to obtain evidence in another EU Member State.
This book is part of the so-called Pompe series, which contains publications by staff members of the Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology in Utrecht, and by authors closely aligned to the school of thought for which the Institute is known. One of its main characteristics has always been the combination of legal and social-scientific approaches to problems of criminal law. The central theme of the Institute's research programme is the protection and enforcement of fundamental rights in a changing world. Within that programme, research focuses on the position of vulnerable groups in relation to the state and on the significance of individual human rights in an international context.
The fear of crime is generally recognized as a social problem around the world. Yet, research has so far lacked to establish a reliable picture of this phenomenon. The present study examines the highly complex allocation of interacting perceptions, for which it provides suitable explanations through a social psychological approach. It aims to discover at what level of psychological distance citizens primarily experience 'the fear of crime' and how they contruct it.
The author applies varous qualitative and quantitative techniques to conduct this research. For instance, historical discourse analysis, free associative interviewing, photo sorting via Q-methodology, and Structural Equation Modelling. The results show that citizens are determined to keep crime at a safe distance. Even to those who deem that crime is a significant factor in their immediate surroundings, 'the fear of crime' remains a distant and abstract social problem.
In recent decades all sorts of illicit medicines have been increasingly traded world-wide: from antibiotics to weight loss drugs, and antimalarial tablets to steroids. The illicit medicines market is generally associated with considerable health risks for its users, as well as with high revenues and a perceived growing degree of criminal organization. It is therefore important to gain extensive criminological insights into this global market. This book provides indepth and empirically-grounded theoretical insights into the online and offline trade in illicit pharmaceuticals, with particular reference to lifestyle pharmaceuticals. Trade in the Netherlands and manufacturing in China are taken as extended case studies. The author primarily focuses on the activities, dynamics and structure of the illicit market in the Netherlands, and on the production and transnational distribution of illicit medicines in and from China. In order to understand how actors operate, compete and develop trust relations, as well as how the illicit market is structured, this study is built on a mixed-method approach of both qualitative and quantitative data. By means of interviews with actors directly involved in the trade, analysis of court cases, a survey study and an online analysis, this book provides thorough and rich insights into the actors, dynamics and social organization of the flourishing illicit medicines market.
The Illicit Medicines Trade from Within is part of the Pompe series; publications that combine legal and social-scientific approaches to the problems of criminal law, written by staff members of the Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology in Utrecht and by authors who share the Institute's school of thought. Its central theme is the protection and enforcement of fundamental rights in a changing world, focussing on the position of vulnerable groups in relation to the state and on the significance of individual human rights in an international context.
National system striving for protecting prisoners' labor and social security rights has been conducted in legislative area in many countries all over the world. And nowadays, national law concerning the protection of prisoners' rights is trying to become more substantial and in tune with international standards. Then while launching penal reforms on prisoners' labor and social security rights in the present and the future, the national legislator might want to be provided with insights and recommendations resulting from academic research. Thus, this book could facilitate them to understand to what extent experiences borrowed from international legal systems could be applied in national legal arrangements in view of an improvement of the protection of prisoners' labor and social security rights. Above all, this book seeks to provide references for national legislation, with the research findings serving as a guide for any country willing to protect prison labor according to worldwide recognized legal standards.
Asylum legal aid lawyers are under continuous public scrutiny. On the one hand, these lawyers are portrayed as being solely motivated by profit. On the other hand, they are depicted as leftist activists frustrating the legal system. When assisting their asylum seeking clients under the state's legal aid scheme, lawyers need to balance the client's interest, the public interest in the administration of justice and their own interest in profit or survival.
The current book examines this balancing act and explores the role of the institutional context. It does so by studying the decision making of asylum legal aid lawyers in the Netherlands and England in respect of two ethical issues: `time vs. money' and `hopeless cases'. This empirical research into lawyers' professional ethics in practice will appeal to scholars engaged in lawyers' ethics, policy makers and those involved in the regulation of the legal profession.
This empirical research into lawyers' professional ethics in practice will appeal to scholars engaged in lawyers' ethics, policy makers and those involved in the regulation of the legal profession.
In 1990, a duffle bag with the dismembered and beheaded remains of American model Melissa Halstead was found in a canal in Rotterdam. In 2001, the dismembered and beheaded remains of English prostitute Paula Fields were found in six bags in a canal in London. Their connection? In the time leading up to their death, both women had been seeing an English carpenter named John Sweeney. He became the only suspect in a joint Dutch and British police investigation. In 2011, John was found guilty of murdering Melissa and Paula and sentenced to life imprisonment. The conviction was not based on actual evidence but on John's sinister drawings and poems. The investigation by Project Reasonable Doubt raises many questions about the police investigation and John's conviction.
Conflicts and International Crimes: an Introduction to Research Methods gives an overview of basic research methods and statistics for the analysis of international crimes: genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. After an introduction to general social science research methodology, it discusses particularities of criminological research as well as tailored techniques for criminology, such as victim surveys and randomized response techniques.
Next it discusses specific techniques for assessing the prevalence of international crimes, borrowing from epidemiology, biology and social science/criminology. Methods for the analysis of the etiology and responses to international crimes are illustrated, as well as general social science and tailored methods for the analysis of the impact of conflicts.
The book uses a minimum of formulas and many examples from well-known recent conflicts in which atrocities were committed, such as Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia and Darfur, as well as from more distant confl icts. It is geared towards students as well as social science and legal scholars studying international crimes and their aftermath.
The Praxis of Justice brings together original contributions on restorative justice centering on the work of Ivo Aertsen, Emeritus Professor of Criminology in the Faculty of Law, KU Leuven. The work of Ivo Aertsen has impacted not only his country, Belgium, but the whole world. In recognition of a worthy life, his friends and colleagues of different generations and from all around the world have created this Liber Amicorum, as a living testament to friendship and accomplishment. The contributions in the book are both diverse and complementary as colours and motives of a tapestry, ranging from fully fledged scholarly reflections to personal anecdotes, memories and letters. The book will be especially interesting for anyone interested in restorative justice in general, and in the work of Ivo Aertsen in particular.
Border control has changed significantly in recent decades. Whereas globalisation appears to have diminished the relevance of international borders, states have simultaneously sought ways to regain some form of control over cross-border mobility. In this process, alternative and novel means of border enforcement have emerged. What do these bordering practices look like? How are they implemented on the ground and experienced by those subjected to them? These are the main questions this dissertation aims to answer. To that end, it looks at bordering practices in the Netherlands through the lens of crimmigration, the term used to refer to the growing merger of criminal justice and migration control. Relying on extensive empirical fieldwork - including observations, focus group discussions, surveys, and in-depth inter views - the dissertation examines two bordering practices: intra-Schengen migration policing and the punishment and deportation of criminally convicted non-citizens. The different empirical chapters highlight the various ways these contemporary bordering practices are shaped by and in their turn shape the criminal justice system, and how this ultimately results in considerable challenges for the legitimacy of both the migration control and the criminal justice system.
This book is about the concerns and unremitting attempts of Dutch state authorities to control and raise barriers against outlaw motorcycle gangs. It discusses how Dutch mayors go to great lengths to prevent the settlement of outlaw motorcycle gangs in clubhouses and bars; how state authorities look for ways to divert members away from civil service and private security companies; how the Dutch National Police attempts to frustrate the internal cohesiveness of outlaw motorcycle gangs through criminal investigations; and why the Dutch courts recently banned a number of clubs at the request of the Public Prosecution Service. In the attempt to describe, understand and explain this approach, this empirical study builds on the work of several scholars who all in their own way characterized contemporary society by the efforts to prevent crime in the earliest stages possible, which attempts are inherently coupled with a focus on the `future', `threats', `dangers', `indicators', `barriers' and `risks'. By conducting a social constructivist analysis through time, the author reveals that the approach to outlaw motorcycle gangs has made a 180-degree shift from inclusion in the 1970s to exclusion in present times. In doing so, it is argued that today's efforts to raise preventive barriers against outlaw motorcycle gangs must not be solely explained by the urge to prevent crime, but also as a way to mark the moral boundaries of society.
The social, economic and technological developments of the late modern society have radically changed policing approaches both at national and supranational levels. With the anti-terrorism discourse and the global crises of mobilities, the security needs of citizens is now at the pinnacle of government priorities. At the same time, traditional law enforcement faces an epistemological crisis through the digitalisation and privatization of security. Governments, and especially the police, are expected to either prevent or respond to security threats, and if necessary, to ensure order through rigorous measures. The traditional means of policing, however, is met with increasing difficulties to sustain their legitimacy on all fronts.
Regarding the current subject of public security, several challenges can be identified. The shifting relationship between organizational and management rules between the state and other governing bodies, the use of new technologies, and the fusion of different security units, such as intelligence services, the military, and the police, all contribute to new tensions in policing practices. These changes urge the need of a reflective policing science and the adaptation of existing theoretical approaches. Although several conceptual differentiations are made between policing practices, hardly any theoretical studies discuss the implication of current contextual differences between traditional welfare states and post-transitional societies.
This book provides a critical interdisciplinary approach through contextualized thematic analyses of policing practices after the digital turn. All topics are discussed from different conceptual perspectives, and will assess how digitalization, global threats and privatization have changed traditional policing approaches.
While challenging existing theoretical approaches in Anglo-Saxon policing studies, this editorial volume aims to promote critical law enforcement studies and the need for more empirical research and new conceptual methodologies in a digitized society.
Crime can be seen as an act of defi ance against the rule of law, particularly if is committed with intent. This intension is often to make unlawful gains, whether by theft, corruption or taking part in illegal markets, which in Europe are most often cross-border in nature. This entails that criminal defi ance is not just a national issue: theft or fraud can be committed locally, while handling the illicit proceeds may require a cross-border movement. Obviously not every state faces the same defi ance, or prioritises the same defi ance. That may induce stronger states, for example the USA in its `war-on' policy, to exert pressure on smaller states to accept the same interpretation (and legislation) of criminal defi ance. Such `legislative imperialism' may itself be considered as defi ant.
Criminal defi ance is risky: the authorities do not like to be seen as `soft' and must visibly `hit back'. So successful criminals must keep a low profi le, though some crime groups, such as the criminal motor-cycle gangs, defy this principle by ostentatious conduct. Likewise, in the case of grand corruption in states where corruption has become endemic, we see criminal defi ance, in the case of some eastern European countries the defi ance by oligarchs, being a public matter.
The 20th Cross-border Crime Colloquium, hosted in 2019 by the Willem Pompe Institute of Utrecht University, presents this peer-reviewed volume to which 32 authors from all over Europe have contributed. It covers a broad range of expertise and original research projects: from the UK, Germany and further to Russian Siberia and back to the frayed fringes of the Mediterranean shores where a host of migrant workers is ready to defy fate for a better life.
This books critically explores media framing of human trafficking for sexual exploitation in UK, Dutch and Serbian media. It draws upon data from content analysis of online news reports and interviews with journalists and anti-trafficking professionals in order to further explore the framing of trafficking, its production and consequences. Through a combination of quantitative, qualitative and visual research methods, this book offers a comprehensive insight into the
mediated representation of trafficking and addresses wider social and political implications of such portrayal.
The media play an important role in fighting trafficking that expands beyond awareness raising and prevention of the crime. Reporting by the press can help mobilise public support, influence policy, monitor institutional response to trafficking, deconstruct stereotypes and foster a supportive environment in which victims recover. Therefore this book is relevant not only for criminologists, media and communications scholars, but it is also a useful source for anti-trafficking and media professionals that can find the set of recommendations leading towards a more responsible reporting on trafficking in human beings.
In social care, mobilizing network support is a topical issue. Networks are at the heart of Family Group Conferencing, or Family Group Decision Making. FGC originated in New Zealand but has spread to many countries worldwide. In this book, FGC researchers with different methodological orientations discuss their findings and reflect candidly on the methodological choices they made and the challenges faced. The `what works' versus `context' controversy in social work research is highlighted from different perspectives. Moreover, the interaction between FGC and the care system in which it is embedded, is illustrated through a variety of disciplines including governance studies, law, and economic analysis.
The wealth of insights collated make this book unique. The book is relevant for researchers, care professionals and (inter-) national policy makers. They will benefit from the experiences and visions shared in this book.
Ten different research teams have contributed to this book. The editors are associate professors at Erasmus University, Rotterdam. This publication was financially supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research and the Municipality of Rotterdam.
Do you want to design a scientific poster that effectively conveys your research results? One that looks professional, and communicates a clear message? This guide provides 8 easy steps towards the creation of such a poster. It will guide you through the idea process and composing your main message, while giving you the tools you need to draft and create the visual design that fits your needs. The 8 steps are easy to implement and are accompanied by examples for further context.
This step-by-step design guide provides useful tools, tips and examples for scientists, students and for anyone who has to make scientific posters or science visuals.
This volume includes topics analysing the meaning of the Covid-19 pandemic and the social responses to it in various domains: from sex work to wildlife crimes, from new forms of social control in Brazil, Ecuador, Canada and Thailand to the role of music, the symbolism of face masks, the spreading of conspiracy theories, domestic violence, and more. It is composed of studies conducted by criminologists who belong to the `Utrecht school'. Criminology `Utrecht style' is unique in the world in the sense that cultural, critical and global criminology are central to its research and teaching programme, ethnographic and netnographic methods are rigorously applied and further developed. The researches here presented - in all their variety, improvisation, and cross-pollination - contribute to the body of cultural criminological work, and go beyond. They explore themes and concepts underexposed in cultural criminology so far, and contribute to the further growth of this academic perspective through their combined understandings of crime and social reactions under extreme social circumstances.
In the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, governments introduced stress tests to measure and monitor banks' health. Breaking the Bank? assesses whether the EU-wide banking stress test is a good regulatory tool. It deals with some of the key questions that still linger about the exercise: do the benefits of the stress test outweigh the enormous cost? Is it tough enough on banks? And, does it tell us which banks are healthy or not?
Beyond the scope of the stress test, the book addresses how indicators are made and to what effect. This is increasingly important as indicators are produced through socio-political power plays and negotiations. Before we can use these indicators in policy and public debate, we need to understand where they come from and what they do.
Fighting Poverty and Violence analyzes what is needed to abolish the worst forms of human deprivation. Based on many international studies about the UN Sustainable Development Goals, it concludes that only two percent of world income is needed to provide all human beings with safe drinking water, sanitation, food, basic education, and simple health care. The poorest people also incur the largest numbers of victims due to wars, disasters, and pandemics. This book contains practical suggestions for more effective civic and political action to reach the universal goal of well-being in peace.
With pictures by Ton Koene
This book addresses the relationship between restorative justice and children's rights, an issue of increasing relevance to restorative justice theory and practice that has thus far received relatively little attention. Readers will find useful reviews of international human rights documents and of legislation, policy and practices in countries in Europe, Africa, Asia, South America, North America, and Oceania. Each of the chapters demonstrates the compatibility between children's rights and restorative justice. Adopting a rights-based approach is an important means for countries that are interested in further developing restorative justice practices, as it helps restorative processes that are new to the juvenile justice system to gain credibility as well as safeguard young participants' rights in these processes. In countries where restorative justice has been developed, a rights approach can stimulate innovation and applications beyond the child justice system. The book focuses on both needs and rights of children and young people who caused harm or suffered harm. Some chapters also adopt a critical point of view to explore the tensions between rights and restorative justice in relation to colonisation, welfare models, and professional privilege.
In this anthology, Professor Emeritus Lode Walgrave, a pioneer in the field of juvenile justice and restorative justice, revisits a selection of his publications, going back to the late 1990s to the late 2010s, on restorative justice as a response to offending. These include reflections on why restorative justice is valuable as well as on how it can and should be implemented. Can reparation be imposed and how would that relate to retribution? Is there room for punishment? The broader field is explored by examining how restorative justice contributes to civilising criminal justice and to a `criminology of trust', all based on his socio-ethical concept of `common self-interest'. In newly written introductory and concluding chapters, Walgrave explains how this journey in writing resulted in developing a consequential approach to restorative justice, which prioritises restorative responses to crime and delinquency.