The importance of Bartholomew's oeuvre and cultural life under the reign of Manfred.
An important chapter in the rediscovery of Aristotle in the Middle Ages is the oeuvre of Bartholomew of Messina (Bartholomaeus de Messana), a translator at the court of Manfred, King of Sicily (1258-1266). However, the impact of both Bartholomew and Manfred on the cultural and intellectual life of their time remains understudied, especially in comparison to the attention received by the translator's contemporary, William of Moerbeke, and by the King's father, Frederick II of Hohenstaufen. This volume contributes to the exploration of this field of research in a twofold way. It discusses the nature and importance of Bartholomew's oeuvre (and especially his translations of Aristotle). Moreover, by situating Bartholomew's activity in a broader context Translating at the Court pays special attention to cultural life under the reign of Manfred.
Pieter Beullens (KU Leuven), Charles Burnett (Warburg Institute, London), Valérie Cordonier (CNRS - KU Leuven), Pieter De Leemans (KU Leuven), Fulvio Delle Donne (Università della Basilicata), Elisabeth Dévière (KU Leuven), Michael Dunne (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Dimitri Gutas (Yale University), +Kotzia Paraskevi (Aristotle University,Thessaloniki), Alessandra Perriccioli Saggese (Seconda Università di Napoli), Giacinta Spinosa (Università di Cassino), Gudrun Vuillemin-Diem (Thomas-Institut, Köln), Steven J. Williams (New Mexico Highlands University), Mauro Zonta (Sapienza Università di Roma)
In this thorough textual, historical, and doctrinal study the author seeks to clarify the relationship between two prominent mystics of the fourteenth century: Meister Eckhart, the German Dominican, and Jan van Ruusbroec, the Brabantine Augustinian. Special attention is paid to Ruusbroec's criticism of mystical tenets circulating in Brabant at that time which were both textually and doctrinally related to Eckhart's condemned propositions in the papal bull In agro dominico. This fact implies that Ruusbroec was confronted with the impact of the condemnation of Eckhart's doctrines on the people in Brabant. Situating Ruusbroec's life and works within the aftermath of Eckhart's arrival, the author elucidates Ruusbroec's position regarding the relevant mystical themes in the later Middle Ages, and follows a process of critical inheritance of mystical tradition from Eckhart to Ruusbroec.
New insights into Pietro d'Abano's unique approach to translations.
The commentary of Pietro d'Abano on Bartholomew's Latin translation of Pseudo-Aristotle's Problemata Physica, published in 1310, constitutes an important historical source for the investigation of the complex relationship between text, translation, and commentary in a non-curricular part of the corpus Aristotelicum.
As the eight articles in this volume show, the study of Pietro's commentary not only provides valuable insights into the manner in which a commentator deals with the problems of a translated text, but will also bring to light the idiosyncrasy of Pietro's approach in comparison to his contemporaries and successors, the particularities of his commentary in light of the habitual exegetical practices applied in the teaching of regular curricular texts, as well as the influence of philosophical traditions outside the strict framework of the medieval arts faculty.
Joan Cadden (University of California, Davis), Gijs Coucke (KU Leuven), Béatrice Delaurenti (École des Hautes Études et Sciences Sociales - Paris), Pieter De Leemans (KU Leuven), Françoise Guichard-Tesson (KU Leuven), Danielle Jacquart (École Pratique des Hautes Études - Paris), Christian Meyer (Centre d'Études supérieures de la Renaissance - Tours), Iolanda Ventura (CNRS - Université d'Orléans)
Die Studie untersucht die Ordnung des mittelalterlichen Rechtswissens in vorgratianischen Sammlungen, dem Decretum Gratiani sowie den Glossen und Summen zum Dekret. Im Mittelpunkt steht also das kirchenrechtliche Wissen, das sich zwischen 1000 und 1215 grundlegend änderte: Während kirchliche Rechtsregeln um 1000 in Kanonessammlungen linear gespeichert waren, wurden sie im 12. Jahrhundert zu komplexem Rechtswissen miteinander verknüpft. Auf Basis einer umfassenden Auswertung der handschriftlichen Überlieferung wird der Wandel des Rechtswissens anhand des päpstlichen Jurisdiktionsprimats und des Zölibats analysiert. Zudem zeigt die Untersuchung den Einfluss der artes liberales und der Rhetorik bei der Ordnung kirchlicher Normen. Die Studie gibt so einen faszinierenden Einblick in die Entstehung der Kanonistik und zeigt zugleich die Vielfältigkeit und Vielschichtigkeit des juristischen Wissens im Hochmittelalter.
Mise au point définitive de l'épisode central de la transmission du savoir grec en Occident.
Les relations entre la bibliothèque papale à la fin du XIIIe siècle et le célèbre traducteur Guillaume de Moerbeke constituent l'épisode central de la transmission du savoir grec en Occident. Ce livre présente une mise au point définitive de la question, en prenant comme cas d'étude une traduction de Moerbeke dont le modèle grec, actuellement conservé à Florence, faisait partie de la bibliothèque de pape Boniface VIII.
In popular imagination few phenomena are as strongly associated with medieval society as knighthood and chivalry. At the same time, and due to a long tradition of differing national perspectives and ideological assumptions, few phenomena have continued to be the object of so much academic debate. In this volume leading scholars explore various aspects of knightly identity, taking into account both commonalities and particularities across Western Europe. Knighthood and Society in the High Middle Ages addresses how, between the eleventh and the early thirteenth centuries, knighthood evolved from a set of skills and a lifestyle that was typical of an emerging elite habitus, into the basis of a consciously expressed and idealised chivalric code of conduct. Chivalry, then, appears in this volume as the result of a process of noble identity formation, in which some five key factors are distinguished: knightly practices, lineage, crusading memories, gender roles, and chivalric didactics.
The role of monastic institutions in society during the Central Middle Ages has been much debated in medieval studies. Some scholars saw monasticism as the principal motivator of economic, social, intellectual and 'spiritual' progress in human society, while others regarded monastic ideology as fundamentally anti-social and oriented towards itself.
These debates seem to have lost some of their relevance to the present-day scholar. Today monasticism is studied as a social entity which needed interactions with the outside world, not only to subsist in a physical sense, but also to give a clear sense of purpose to its members. Drawing on recent trends in historical scholarship, this volume seeks to identify some of the major questions that will dominate research into monasticism in the years to come. Contributions deal with the evolution of monasticism itself, its links with aristocracy, the economic relations of religious communities and their physical and ideological boundaries, and the representation of the outside world in monastic manuscripts.
Les contributions rassemblées dans ce volume présentent un point de vue à la fois multiple et multidisciplinaire sur l'état de la question dans l'historiographie du monachisme, un domaine de recherche dont la complexité s'avère désormais incontestable. Il s'agit de réflexions portant sur l'évolution du monachisme, ou d'études approfondissant les liens entre le monachisme et l'aristocratie ou les réalités économiques, explorant les liens physiques et idéologiques avec le monde extérieur, sans oublier des analyses portant sur les représentations du monde extérieur dans les manuscrits médiévaux.
Het 15de-eeuwse Brugge was een middeleeuwse grootstad. In deze metropool floreerden luxenijverheden, internationale handel en maakte het Bourgondische hof grote sier. Brugge telde in deze periode enkele honderden geestelijken: kanunniken en pastoors, maar ook kapelanen en talrijke zangers. Onder hen vinden we enkele van de meest vooraanstaande componisten, zangers, ambtenaren en professoren van de lage landen terug, o.a. Gilles Binchois, Gilles Joye, Guillaume Dufay en Antoine Haneron. De Brugse kanunnik Joris Vander Paelen werd door Jan Van Eyck als een devoot man afgebeeld, maar sommige kronieken schetsen een ander beeld van de laatmiddeleeuwse clerus: "Zijn het dan allemaal hebzuchtige en eerzuchtige dieven, hoogmoedige en wellustige hoerenlopers en maagdenonteerders?"
In 'De papen van Brugge' wordt de levenswandel van niet minder dan 1298 seculiere geestelijken onderzocht. Het karikaturale beeld van de hypocriete, geile, ijdele of vraatzuchtige pastoor wordt door Hendrik Callewier aan de hand van rijke archiefbronnen herbekeken en bijgesteld.
Een unieke blik op de kruistochten naar het Midden-Oosten.
Het Midden-Oosten is vandaag een kruitvat, een strijdtoneel van grootmachten, een slagveld van religieus radicalisme. Tijdens de kruistochten in de twaalfde eeuw was het vaak niet anders. Om tot oplossingen te komen, kampte men met vergelijkbare socio-politieke vragen, zoals: Realpolitik versus eigen principes, hoever kan men daarin gaan? Akkoorden afsluiten met 'de vijand' en met 'de religieus andere', is dat wel ethisch verantwoord? Ondergraaft men zo niet de eigen manier van leven? Zijn religieuze tolerantie en vreedzaam multicultureel samenleven wel haalbaar of moet hier niet eerder geopteerd worden voor pragmatisme in de omgang met 'de andere'?
In Over koningen, kruisvaarders en jihadi's maakt de lezer kennis met de twaalfde-eeuwse aartsbisschop Willem van Tyrus, rijkskanselier van het Koninkrijk Jeruzalem en deskundige correspondent ter plaatse. Aan de hand van Willems getuigenis over de middeleeuwse Levant schetst Gust De Preter de historische context. Hij bespreekt de belangrijkste en meest markante observaties en inzichten uit het Chronicon, betrekt ze op de huidige situatie in het Midden-Oosten en trekt behoedzaam interessante parallellen. Door intermezzo's waarin de auteur citeert uit zijn online beschikbare en integrale Nederlandse vertaling van het Chronicon, krijgt de lezer een uniek inzicht in de kruistochten naar het Midden-Oosten en een inkijk in het prikkelende gedachtegoed van een scherpzinnige chroniqueur.
Voorwoord van historicus en Midden-Oosten-correspondent Jorn De Cock.
CAA is the foremost conference on digital archaeology, and this volume offers a comprehensive and up-to date reference to the state of the art. This volume contains a selection of the best papers presented at the 40th Annual Conference of Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA), held in Southampton from 26 to 29 March 2012. The papers, all written and peer-reviewed by experts in the field of digital archaeology, explore a multitude of topics to showcase ground-breaking technologies and best practice from various archaeological and informatics disciplines, with a variety of case studies from all over the world.
The present volume contains a collection of papers on the reception of Aristotle's Problemata, a multifaceted text asking various questions about medical, scientific or everyday topics. This text is one of the most neglected Aristotelian treatises, because of its heterogeneous character and its so-called 'inauthenticity'. It has been the subject of a complex transmission. In ancient times, Aristotle's text has been augmented and adapted, while still other authors composed similar collections of Problemata. In the Middle Ages, Problemata collections have been translated into Arabic, Latin, and Middle French, each translation being characterized by its own particularities. The Latin translation lead to an extremely influential commentary by the Italian physician Peter of Abano, whereas Evrart de Conty, who made the Middle French translation, added himself a commentary to each discussed problem, often using Peter of Abano's text as source. Also in the Renaissance, the Problemata appealed to the interest of physicians and philosophers. In their contributions to this book, the authors analyse this complex web of relations between source-texts, translations, and commentaries, in different times and tongues.
Church buildings dominated the medieval towns. Higher and stronger than most buildings in town, and often easily accessible because of their central position, they offered a venue for various kinds of activities. Naturally, the faithful first and foremost flocked towards the parish and monastic churches and chapels to attend masses, to receive the Sacraments, to offer up their prayers. But not all uses were strictly religious. Secular authorities, from the ruler to the town government, the trades or guilds, made --sometimes extensive-- use of these ecclesiastical buildings, usually for practical or socio-political reasons. Indeed, ecclesiastical buildings were used for storage or preservation purposes (arms, documents, treasure, ...), for defensive reasons, for accomodating large gatherings, ... They were also perceived to lend a kind of sacral aura to all proceedings taking place inside, and were consequently the ideal setting for ceremonies such as crownings, for elections, meetings, ..., emphasizing the legitimacy and the solemn nature of these (socio-)political activities. Apart from a mere enumeration and description of the different uses, the authors of this book also try to explain why these 'sacred spaces' were such appreciated venues for various kinds of secular activities, and why some churches and monasteries were more popular than other. Moreover, it will become clear that, in some cases, sacred space itself was adapted to the needs of the secular community. Naturally, the local clergy or ecclesiastical authorities could greatly influence the actual use made of these buildings, by either granting or denying the secular world the right to 'invade' their sacred spaces.
This book discusses uses made of churches and monasteries by secular authorities in the Low Countries, the German regions and the British Isles, focussing on the late medieval period. In this way, the reader is offered a view across borders and periods, as well as across different levels of society. Symbolic uses of churches for reasons of prestige, legitimacy or solemnity are confronted with the down-to-earth (ab)use of sacred spaces in order to survive. Long-term, traditional uses which were continued for centuries, are set against improptu decisions in answer to occasional needs or emergencies. More in particular, the topics discussed for the Low Countries range from the everyday use of parish churches (Kuys), over the use of ecclesiastical buildings for peace-proclamations (van Leeuwen), to the abuse of these buildings in times of war (De Smet), and to the representation of patronage on the paintings with which they were decorated (Dekeyzer). For the German regions, the function of these buildings for royal representation (Rahel Oesterle) and the church as a space for communication (Signori) are discussed. The London Mendicant monasteries (Röhrkasten) and a Cistercian monastery (Jamroziak) were situated within the sphere of influence of several secular authorities --among which was the court-- while also the influence of urban ceremonies (Sweetinburgh) and noble patronage (Stöber) on ecclesiastical buildings in more peripheral regions receives the attention it deserves.
This book represents for the Low Countries a first attempt at the study of this subject.
Manuscripts constitute the source material par excellence for diverse academic disciplines. Art historians, philologists, historians, theologians, philosophers, book historians and even jurists encounter one another around the codex. The fact that such an encounter can be extremely fertile was demonstrated, during an international congress in Brussels on November 5-9, 2002.
A record of the discussions can be found in this volume of the Mediaevalia Lovaniensia. The editors selected those lectures that focused on the historical, literary-historical, philosophical and theological aspects of the congress theme as opposed to those with an explicit art-historical perspective. The common thread, however, is always the codicological aspect: what can the study of manuscripts contribute to the literary-historical interpretation or the insight into the functioning of a text in its original context. The various contributions testify to a fearless and unrestrained interdisciplinary approach to the material. The subjects broached cover a broad domain: from the development of classical themes to the transmission of lyrical models, from visual material giving evidence of the reception of literary texts to the artes-literature used as a vehicle for a love story.
This volume addresses symbolic forms of communication in the late medieval towns of the Low Countries, northern France and the Swiss Confederation. In context of State centralisation, the political autonomy of these towns was threatened by tensions with higher levels of power. Within this conflict both rulers and towns employed symbolic means of communication to legitimise their power position.
The intensive use of rituals like theatreplays and gift-exchange demonstrates that symbolic forms of communication were no routine jobs. Towns and rulers actively appropriated and reread older traditions in order to adapt them to the new settings in which they were employed. Tradition and innovation had to be balanced well, in order for the audience to understand the ritual correctly. However, the organiser could never control the new layers of meaning the audience would attach to the event.
This volume seeks to explore how new layers of meaning were attached to well-known traditions, how these rituals were perceived and when the recognizability of a ritual was damaged by such appropriations. Both public encounters between rulers and towns are studied, as well as the use of ritual to express the political and religious relations between the various social groups within the towns.
This book offers a unique approach to Thomas Aquinas the saint by focusing on his dead body. Thomas's corpse was not simply perceived as the physical remains of a philosopher, but as a holy relic. The remains became a focus of veneration, and yet, due to many political intrigues, the corpse was not always materially present in devotional moments. In these situations, the holy relics were recreated verbally, pictorially, or allegorically from elements that were not directly connected to Thomas's remains, even to the extent in which the presence of the corpse was perceptible by nose or mouth. Both of these praesentiae, physical and imagined, were equally real to the medieval listener or spectator. The book argues that although medieval communities were able to create the presence of Thomas's corpse by various techniques, the question of the material presence of Thomas's remains became increasingly important in the politically tumultuous southern Italy.
NB CATALOGUSTEKST CHICAGO:
This book offers a new way of looking at Saint Thomas Aquinas-not as a living man, but as a posthumous source of relics. Marika Räsänen delves deep into the strange relationship between Aquinas's physical remains and the devotional moments they enabled-in many cases in situations where the actual relics were even present, but were recreated verbally, pictorially, or allegorically. Both the actual relics and these extended manifestations of them, Räsänen shows, were equally real to the medieval spectator, though the question of the material presence of Aquinas's remains became increasingly important over time amid the political tumult of southern Italy.