New Paths, the seventh volume in the Writings of the Orpheus Institute, is a result of the third International Orpheus Academy for Music Theory. Five renowned scholars discuss a variety of topics related to romanticism, focusing especially on the years 1800-1840. In a much-needed historical and critical overview of the concept of organicism, John Neubauer ranges from its origins in Enlightenment biology to its aftermath in postmodernism.
Janet Schmalfeldt shows that Beethoven's op.47 not only should be called the Bridgetower rather than the Kreutzer Sonata, but also that this makes a difference as to its meaning. Extreme contrasts between emotional and mechanical types of music in late Beethoven are explained
by Scott Burnham as stagings of the limits of human subjectivity. Jim Samson discusses Chopin's little-known musical upbringing in Warsaw, arguing that his grounding in eighteenth-century aesthetics (as opposed to theory) has thus far been neglected. Finally, Susan Youens' case study of Franz Lachner's Heine songs sheds new light on radical experimentation by a so-called epigone in the period between Schubert and Schumann's miracle song year.
With contributions by: Scott Burnham, John Neubauer, Jim Samson, Janet Schmalfeldt, Susan Youens.
In Musical Form, Forms & Formenlehre: Three Methodological Reflections, three eminent music theorists consider the fundamentals of musical form. They discuss how to analyze form in music and question the relevance of analytical theories and methods in general. They illustrate their basic concepts and concerns by offering some concrete analyses of works by Mozart (Idomeneo Overture, Jupiter Symphony) and Beethoven (First Symphony, Pastoral Symphony, Egmont Overture, and Die Ruinen von Athen Overture).
The volume is divided into three parts, focusing on Caplin's "theory of formal functions," Hepokoski's concept of "dialogic form," and Webster's method of "multivalent analysis" respectively. Each part begins with an essay by one of the three authors. Subsequently, the two opposing authors comment on issues and analyses they consider to be problematic or underdeveloped, in a style that ranges from the gently critical to the overtly polemical. Finally, the author of the initial essay is given the opportunity to respond to the comments and to refine further his own fundamental ideas on musical form.
The musical thought and practice of canonical composers.
What can music tell us-without words? Can it depict scenes, narrate stories, elucidate beliefs? And can it be an instrument through which we access the inner lives not only of musicians from the past but of ourselves, today?
In Ohne Worte five scholars and performers probe these and related questions to illuminate both the experience and performance of nineteenth-century music. Drawing on a rich range of sources, they reveal the musical thought and practice of canonical composers like Berlioz, Mendelssohn, and Schumann. Their work challenges us to reconsider our musical practices and the voices manifested in them, and it encourages the creation of an art that is both historical and transcendental.
Jean-Pierre Bartoli (Université Paris-Sorbonne), Hubert Moßburger (Staatlichen Hochschule für Musik und Darstellende Kunst Stuttgart), Jeanne Roudet (Université Paris-Sorbonne), Douglass Seaton (Florida State University School of Music), Edoardo Torbianelli (Hochschule der Künste Bern)
The history of musical improvisation from the late Middle Ages to the early Baroque.
Studying improvised music is always a challenge, due to its volatility and unpredictability. But what about studying musical improvisation from before the age of sound recordings? In this book three experts give their view on aspects of musical improvisation in the late medieval, renaissance, and early baroque periods. Historical sources show us how improvisation was an integral part of music education and how closely improvisation and composition were linked. This gives new insights into the way music was played in its original historical context and a new way to look at written scores from the past.
Improvising Early Music will appeal to anyone interested in the historical background of our written musical heritage, and to musicians who want to gain a deeper insight in the way this music was created.
Johannes Menke (Schola Cantorum Basiliensis, Basel), Peter Schubert (Schulich School of Music, McGill University, Montreal), Rob C. Wegman (Princeton University)
The variety and complexity of cadence.
The concept of closure is crucial to understanding music from the "classical" style. This volume focuses on the primary means of achieving closure in tonal music: the cadence. Written by leading North American and European scholars, the nine essays assembled in this volume seek to account for the great variety and complexity inherent in the cadence by approaching it from different (sub)disciplinary angles, including music-analytical, theoretical, historical, psychological (experimental), as well as linguistic. Each of these essays challenges, in one way or another, our common notion of cadence. Controversial viewpoints between the essays are highlighted by numerous cross-references. Given the ubiquity of cadences in tonal music in general, this volume is aimed not only at a broad portion of the academic community, scholars and students alike, but also at music performers.
Pieter Bergé (KU Leuven), Poundie Burstein (City University of New York), Vasili Byros (Northwestern University), William Caplin (McGill University), Felix Diergarten (Schola Cantorum Basiliensis), Nathan John Martin (Yale University / KU Leuven), Danuta Mirka (University of Southampton), Markus Neuwirth (KU Leuven), Julie Pedneault-Deslauriers (University of Ottawa), Martin Rohrmeier (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), and David Sears (McGill University)
The carillon, the world's largest musical instrument, originated in the 16th century when inhabitants of the Low Countries started to produce music on bells in church and city towers. Today, carillon music still fills the soundscape of cities in Belgium and the Netherlands. Since the First World War, carillon music has become popular in the United States, where it adds a spiritual dimension to public parks and university campuses.
'Singing Bronze' opens up the fascinating world of the carillon to the reader. It tells the great stories of European and American carillon history: the quest for the perfect musical bell, the fate of carillons in times of revolt and war, the role of patrons such as John D. Rockefeller Jr. and Herbert Hoover in the development of American carillon culture, and the battle between singing bronze and carillon electronics.
Richly illustrated with original photographs and etchings, Singing Bronze tells how people developed, played, and enjoyed bell music. With this book, a fascinating history that is yet little known is made available for a wide public.
Nouvelles perspectives en sémiotique.
Tout est musique, et la musique nous accompagne partout : ces lieux communs n'ont jamais été si vrais qu'aujourd'hui, au temps de l'arrosage musical continuel. Cette ubiquité, loin d'être simplement une mode, nous oblige à repenser sémiotiquement la fonction et le fonctionnement de la musique.
Les essais composant Sémiotique et vécu musical montrent dans quelle direction se dirigent les recherches de nos jours. L'analyse de l'expérience musicale, par exemple, détermine la réception affective, peut provoquer l'ébranlement intérieur, transformer le temps vécu, changer et déterminer les structures de l'expérience ainsi que l'expérientialité. L'expérience musicale est profondément liée à l'incarnation et à la corporalité. Elle peut redéfinir l'horizon de compréhension, moduler les attentes, déterminer et délimiter les contenus phénoménaux. Elle est fondamentalement conditionnée par l'interaction physique avec un instrument ou encore modelée par le studio d'enregistrement. L'intelligence artificielle et l'usage de robots dans des spectacles commencent à remettre en cause nos conceptions de l'expérience musicale. Ces nouvelles perspectives développées en sémiotique s'ouvrent nécessairement et impérativement aux sciences cognitives, aux nouvelles approches de la musicologie, à la transdisciplinarité et au transmédial. Le caractère innovant du présent ouvrage qui touche la théorie, la méthodologie et l'empirisme, témoigne de la vivacité, de l'inventivité et du dynamisme qui caractérisent la sémiotique toujours jeune, curieuse et surprenante.
Sylvain Brétéché (Aix-Marseille Université), Guillaume Deveney (Aix-Marseille Université), Carole Egger (Université de Strasbourg), Christine Esclapez (Aix-Marseille Université ), Márta Grabócz (Université de Strasbourg), Michel Imberty (Université de Paris X, Nanterre), Thomas Le Colleter (Université Paris-IV Sorbonne), Gabriel Manzaneque (Aix-Marseille Université), Zaven Paré (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro), Isabelle Reck (Universite de Strasbourg), Mathias Rousselot (Aix-Marseille Université)
Wolfgang Rihm ( b. Karlsruhe, 1952) is the most performed living German composer. With his personal, expressive, and versatile music, he became the most prominent representative of his generation. His individual approach to music was established in the 1980s and he continues to explore and enlarge his original concepts today. His 1980s work is at the core of this book, more specifically his instrumental music: the Chiffre cycle and the string quartets. Thinking about Rihm includes reflecting on his interest in philosophy, his relation to fine arts, his awareness of principles found in nature, and his references to important composers from the past. His music is embedded in the past and the actuality in modernism and postmodernism. Notwithstanding Rihm's generosity in essays and introductions to his works, many aspects of the 'inner sound' of his music stay an elusive, ungraspable 'chiffre': a challenge for the analyst.
The Orpheus Institute celebrates 20 years of artistic research in music. Artistic research in music is now at a generational stage of development. How should it deal with its own maturing? From a kaleidoscope of individual pursuits, ethos and methodologies have emerged to encompass more distributed approaches. This transformation has taken place in parallel with changes in the dynamics and structures of culture, its institutions and constituencies. Artistic research maintains a productive dialectic between its potential status as discipline or as practice. It has developed topoi, tropes and its own canon of cases, texts and figures. How does it negotiate relationships with institutions, disciplines and bodies of theory while retaining the critical perspective of the artist? Twenty years ago the Orpheus Institute was founded in Ghent to pursue research through the practice of musicians and thus the Orpheus Institute is of the same generation as the field it was established to explore. This festive volume in honour of 20 years of the Orpheus Institute reviews the initial trajectory and looks ahead to the institute's new position.
Contributors: Tom Beghin (Orpheus Institute, Ghent), Paulo de Assis (Orpheus Institute, Ghent), Leonella Grasso Caprioli (Conservatorio di Vicenza), Jonathan Impett (Orpheus Institute, Ghent), Esa Kirkkopelto (University of the Arts, Helsinki), Kari Kurkela (University of the Arts, Helsinki), Susan Melrose (Middlesex University, London), Stefan Östersjö (Orpheus Institute, Ghent), Gertrud Sandqvist (Malmö Art Academy), Huib Schippers, Vanessa Tomlinson, Paul Draper (Queensland Conservatorium Research Centre, Griffith University), Luk Vaes (Orpheus Institute, Ghent), Janneke Wesseling/ Kitty Zijlmans (Leiden University)
Multidisciplinary analysis of experimentalism in music and the wider arts today
Experimental Encounters in Music and Beyond opens a necessary dialogue on experimental practices in the arts and negotiates their place in contemporary society. Going beyond the music-historical usage of the term "experimental", this book reimagines experimentation as an open working definition encompassing multiple forms of artistic attitudes and processes. The texts, images, and sounds offer multiple traces, faces, and spaces, revealing what experimentalism in music and the wider arts entails today. With perspectives from a range of disciplines-from choreography through composition to philosophy and beyond-the different experiences and artistic projects documented and discussed explore the complexity of experimentation in a way that is all the richer for being never-ending.
Richard Barrett (Institute of Sonology, The Hague), Sebastian Berweck (pianist and performer), Kathleen Coessens (Orpheus Institute, Ghent), Frederik Croene (pianist and composer, Belgium), Chaya Czernowin (Harvard University, Cambridge), Anne Douglas (Grays School of Art, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen), Bob Gilmore + (Orpheus Institute, Ghent), Valentin Gloor (Orpheus Institute, Ghent), David Gorton (Royal Academy of Music, University of London), David Horne (Royal Northern College of Music, Manchester), Efva Lilja (Dansehallerne, Copenhagen), Svetlana Maras (independent music professional, Radio Belgrade, Electronic Studio), Melinda Maxwell (Royal Northern College of Music, Manchester), Christopher Redgate (Royal Academy of Music, University of London), Jan C. Schacher (Royal Conservatoire, Artesis Plantijn University College, Antwerp, and Zurich University of the Arts), Reto Stadelmann (composer and musician, Germany), Steve Tromans (Middlesex University, UK), Penelope Turner (singer, musician, and performer, UK and Belgium)
The Western history of aesthetics is characterised by tension between theory and practice. Musicians listen, play, and then listen more profoundly in order to play differently, adapt the body, and sense the environment. They become deeply involved in the sensorial qualities of music practice. Artistic practice refers to the original meaning of aesthetics-the senses. Whereas Baumgarten and Goethe explored the relationship between sensibility and reason, sensation and thinking, later philosophers of aesthetics deemed the sensorial to be confused and unreliable and instead prioritised a cognitive or objective approach.
Written by authors from the fields of philosophy, composition, performance, and artistic practice, Sensorial Aesthetics in Music Practices repositions aesthetics as a domain of the sensible and explores the interaction between artists, life, and environment. Aesthetics becomes a field of sensorial and embodied experience involving temporal and spatial influences, implicit knowledge, and human characteristics.
Contributors: Kathleen Coessens (Koninklijk Conservatorium Brussel, Orpheus Institute), Tim Ingold (University of Aberdeen), Michaël Levinas (Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique de Paris), Fabien Lévy (Hochschule für Musik Detmold), Lasse Thoresen (Norwegian Academy of Music), Vanessa Tomlinson (Queensland Conservatorium of Music), Salomé Voegelin (University of the Arts London)
Futures of the Contemporary explores different notions and manifestations of "the contemporary" in music, visual arts, art theory, and philosophy. In particular, the authors in this collection of essays scrutinise the role of artistic research in critical and creative expressions of contemporaneity. When distinguished from "the contemporaneous" of a given historical time, "the contemporary" becomes a crucial concept, promoting or excluding objects and practices according to their ability to diagnose previously unnoticed aspects of the present. In this sense, the contemporary gains a critical function, involving particular modes of relating to history and one's own time.
Written by major experts from fields such as music performance, composition, art theory, visual arts, art history, critical studies, and philosophy, this book offers challenging perspectives on contemporary art practices, the temporality of artistic works and phenomena, and new modes of problematising the production of art and its public apprehension.
Contributors: Andrew Prior (University of Plymouth), Babette Babich (Fordham University), Geoff Cox (Fine Art at Plymouth University / Aarhus University), Heiner Goebbels (Justus Liebig University), Jacob Lund (Aarhus University), Michael Schwab (Orpheus Institute), Pal Capdevila (Autonomous University of Barcelona), Paulo de Assis (Orpheus Institute), Peter Osborne (Kingston University London), Ryan Nolan (University of Plymouth), Zsuzsa Baross (Trent University)
Identity and subjectivity in musical performances.
Who is the "I" that performs? The arts of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have pushed us relentlessly to reconsider our notions of the self, expression, and communication: to ask ourselves, again and again, who we think we are and how we can speak meaningfully to one another. Although in other performing arts studies, especially of theatre, the performance of selfhood and identity continues to be a matter of lively debate in both practice and theory, the question of how a sense of self is manifested through musical performance has been neglected. The authors of Voices, Bodies, Practices are all musician-researchers: the book employs artistic research to explore how embodied performing "voices" can emerge from the interactions of individual performers and composers, musical materials, instruments, mediating technologies, and performance contexts.
Music reflects subjectivity and identity: that idea is now deeply ingrained in both musicology and popular media commentary. The study of music across cultures and practices often addresses the enactment of subjectivity "in" music - how music expresses or represents "an" individual or "a" group. However, a sense of selfhood is also formed and continually reformed through musical practices, not least performance. How does this take place? How might the work of practitioners reveal aspects of this process? In what sense is subjectivity performed in and through musical practices? This book explores these questions in relation to a range of artistic research involving contemporary music, drawing on perspectives from performance studies, phenomenology, embodied cognition, and theories of gendered and cultural identity.
Contributors: Steve Benford (University of Nottingham), Richard Craig (freelance performer and researcher), David Gorton (Royal Academy of Music, London), Christopher Greenhalgh (University of Nottingham), Adrian Hazzard (University of Nottingham), Juliana Hodkinson (Grieg Academy, University of Bergen), Maria Kallionpää (Aalborg University), Zubin Kanga (Royal Holloway, University of London), Catherine Laws (University of York/Orpheus Institute), Jin Hyung Lim (Keimyung University), Thanh Thy Nguyn (Malm Academy of Music, Lund University/Vietnam National Academy of Music), Stefan Östersj (Piteå School of Music, Luleå University of Technology/Orpheus Institute), Deniz Peters (University of Music and Performing Arts, Graz), Eleanor Roberts (University of Roehampton), Anne Veinberg (Orpheus Institute)
Our contemporary, globalised society demands new forms of listening. But what are these new forms? In Listening to the Other, Stefan Östersj challenges conventional understandings of the ways musicians listen. He develops a transmodal understanding of listening that is situated in the body-a body that is extended by its mediation through musical instruments and other technologies. Listening habits can turn these tools-and even the body itself-into resistant objects or musical Others. Supported by extensive multimedia documentation and drawing on examples from the author's own artistic projects spanning electronics, intercultural collaboration, and ecological sound art, this volume enables musicians to learn how to approach musical Others through alternative modes of listening and allows readers to discover artistic methods for intercultural collaboration and ecological sound art practices.
This book is closely linked to a series of cutting-edge artistic works, including a triple concerto recorded with the Seattle Symphony and several video works with ecological sound art. It represents the analytical outcomes of artistic research projects carried out in Sweden, the UK, and Belgium between 2009 and 2015.
The concept of assemblage has emerged in recent decades as a central tool for describing, analysing, and transforming dynamic systems in a variety of disciplines. Coined by Deleuze and Guattari in relation to different fields of knowledge, human practices, and nonhuman arrangements, "assemblage" is variously applied today in the arts, philosophy, and human and social sciences, forming links not only between disciplines but also between critical thought and artistic practice. Machinic Assemblages focuses on the concept's uses, transpositions, and appropriations in the arts, bringing together the voices of artists and philosophers that have been working on and with this topic for many years with those of emerging scholar-practitioners. The volume embraces exciting new and reconceived artistic practices that discuss and challenge existing assemblages, propose new practices within given assemblages, and seek to invent totally unprecedented assemblages.
Profound theoretical and philosophical approach to contemporary music.
Unsayable Music presents theoretical, critical and analytical reflections on key topics of contemporary music including acoustic, electroacoustic and digital music, and audiovisual and multimedia composition. Six essays by Paulo C. Chagas approaching music from different perspectives such as philosophy, sociology, cybernetics, musical semiotics, media, and critical studies. Chagas's practical experience, both as a composer of contemporary music and sound director of the Electronic Music Studio of Cologne, nourishes his observations on the specific creativity that emerges with the use of the technical apparatus, the development of the electronic music studio, the different aesthetics of electroacoustic music, and the forms of audiovisual and multimedia composition.
The title Unsayable Music is a reference to Wittgenstein, who suggested that sound is only the surface of music and that the musical work conceals something more profound that can hardly be described by philosophical models or scientific theories.
Transdisciplinary and intermedial analysis of the experience of music.
Nowadays musical semiotics no longer ignores the fundamental challenges raised by cognitive sciences, ethology, or linguistics. Creation, action and experience play an increasing role in how we understand music, a sounding structure impinging upon our body, our mind, and the world we live in. Not discarding music as a closed system, an integral experience of music demands a transdisciplinary dialogue with other domains as well. Music, Analysis, Experience brings together contributions by semioticians, performers, and scholars from cognitive sciences, philosophy, and cultural studies, and deals with these fundamental questionings. Transdisciplinary and intermedial approaches to music meet musicologically oriented contributions to classical music, pop music, South American song, opera, narratology, and philosophy.
Paulo Chagas (University of California, Riverside), Isaac and Zelia Chueke (Universidade Federal do Paraná, OMF/Paris-Sorbonne), Maurizio Corbella (Università degli Studi di Milano), Ian Cross (University of Cambridge), Paulo F. de Castro (CESEM/Departamento de Ciências Musicais; FCSH Universidade Nova de Lisboa), Robert S. Hatten (University of Texas at Austin), David Huron (School of Music, Ohio State University), Jamie Liddle (The Open University), Gabriele Marino (University of Turin), Dario Martinelli (Kaunas University of Technology; International Semiotics Institute), Nicolas Marty (Université Paris-Sorbonne), Maarten Nellestijn (Utrecht University), Malgorzata Pawlowska (Academy of Music in Krakow), Mônica Pedrosa de Pádua (Federal University of Minas Gerais, UFMG), Piotr Podlipniak (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan), Rebecca Thumpston (Keele University), Mieczyslaw Tomaszewski (Academy of Music in Krakow), Lea Maria Lucas Wierød (Aarhus University), Lawrence M. Zbikowski (University of Chicago)
The impact of Hegelian philosophy on 19th-century music criticism.
Music's status as an art form was distrusted in the context of German idealist philosophy which exerted an unparalleled influence on the entire nineteenth century. Hegel insisted that the content of a work of art should be grasped in concepts in order to establish its spiritual substantiality (Geistigkeit), and that no object, word or image could accurately represent the content and meaning of a musical work. In the mid-nineteenth century, Friedrich Theodor Vischer and other Hegelian aestheticians kept insisting on art's conceptual clarity, but they adapted the aesthetic system on which this requirement had been based. Their adaptations turned out to be decisive for the development of music criticism, to such an extent that music critics used them to point out musical content and to confirm music's autonomy as an art form. This book unravels the network of music critics and philosophers, including not only Hegel but also Franz Liszt, Franz Brendel, and Eduard Hanslick, whose works shaped public opinions of music.
Questions concerning music and its inextricably intertwined and complex interface with time continue to fascinate musicians and scholars.
For performers, the primary perception of music is arguably the way in which it unfolds in 'real time'; while for composers a work appears 'whole and entire', with the presence of the score having the potential to compress, and even eliminate, the perception of time as 'passing'.
The paradoxical relationship between these two perspectives, and the subtle mediations at the interface between them with which both performers and composers engage, form the subject matter of this collection of studies. The various contributors address the temporal significance of specific topics such as notation, tempo, metre and rhythm within broader contexts of performance, composition, aesthetics and philosophy. The aim is to present novel ideas about music and time that provide particular insight into musical practice and the world of artistic research.
With contributions by: Bruce Brubaker, Pascal Decroupet, Mark Delaere, Justin London, Ian Pace.
Deleuze's and Guattari's philosophy in the field of artistic research
Gilles Deleuze's intriguing concept of the dark precursor refers to intensive processes of energetic flows passing between fields of different potentials. Fleetingly used in Difference and Repetition, it remained underexplored in Deleuze's subsequent work. In this collection of essays numerous contributors offer perspectives on Deleuze's concept of the dark precursor as it affects artistic research, providing a wide-ranging panorama on the intersection between music, art, philosophy, and scholarship.
The forty-eight chapters in this publication present a kaleidoscopic view of different fields of knowledge and artistic practices, exposing for the first time the diversity and richness of a world situated between artistic research and the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari. Within different understandings of artistic research, the authors-composers, architects, performers, philosophers, sculptors, film-makers, painters, writers, and activists-map practices and invent concepts, contributing to a creative expansion of horizons, materials, and methodologies.
VOLUME 1: Paulo de Assis, Arno Böhler, Edward Campbell, Diego Castro-Magas, Pascale Criton, Zornitsa Dimitrova, Lois Fitch, Mike Fletcher, Paolo Galli, Lindsay Gianoukas, Keir GoGwilt, Oleg Lebedev, Jimmie LeBlanc, Nicolas Marty, Frédéric Mathevet, Vincent Meelberg, Catarina Pombo Nabais, Tero Nauha, Gabriel Paiuk, Martin Scherzinger, Einar Torfi Einarsson, Steve Tromans, Toshiya Ueno, Susanne Valerie, Audrone Zukauskaite
VOLUME 2: Éric Alliez, Manola Antonioli, Jurate Baranova, Zsuzsa Baross, Anna Barseghian, Ian Buchanan, Elena del Río, Luis de Miranda, Lucia D'Errico, Lilija Duobliene, Adreis Echzehn, Jae Emerling, Verina Gfader, Ronny Hardliz, Rahma Khazam, Stefan Kristensen, Erin Manning, John Miers, Elfie Miklautz, Marc Ngui, Andreia Oliveira, Federica Pallaver, Andrej Radman, Felix Rebolledo, Anne Sauvagnargues, Janae Sholtz, Mhairi Vari, Mick Wilson, Elisabet Yanagisawa
Unique focus on the relation between artistic research and the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze.
Aberrant Nuptials explores the diversity and richness of the interactions between artistic research and Deleuze studies. "Aberrant nuptials" is the expression Gilles Deleuze uses to refer to productive encounters between systems characterised by fundamental difference. More than imitation, representation, or reproduction, these encounters foster creative flows of energy, generating new material configurations and intensive experiences. Within different understandings of artistic research, the contributors to this book-architects, composers, film-makers, painters, performers, philosophers, sculptors, and writers-map current practices at the intersection between music, art, and philosophy, contributing to an expansion of horizons and methodologies. Written by established Deleuze scholars who have been working on interferences between art and philosophy, and by musicians and artists who have been reflecting Deleuzian and Post-Deleuzian discourses in their artworks, this volume reflects the current relevance of artistic research and Deleuze studies for the arts.