Ferenczi Dialogues presents the contribution of Sándor Ferenczi to a psychoanalytic theory of trauma and discusses the philosophical, political and clinical implications of Ferenczi's thinking. To a far greater extent than Freud, Sándor Ferenczi centered his psychoanalytic thought around trauma.
Ferenczi's work pluralizes the notion of catastrophe, as being both destructive and a turning point. This book addresses Ferenczi's work in terms of thinking in times of crises, by considering contemporary situations in constellation with various scenes from the past: the outbreak of the First World War, the crisis of psychoanalysis as an institution, the disastrous final encounter between Ferenczi and Freud, the rise of Fascism and National Socialism, and the impending exile of the founding members of the psychoanalytic movement. Against this backdrop, the authors show how Ferenczi's late work outlines a new metapsychology of fragments. Ferenczi Dialogues situates the legacy of Ferenczi within the broad interdisciplinary landscape of the social sciences, literary theory, psychoanalytic theory, and clinical practice, and highlights Ferenczi's relevance for contemporary philosophical discussions in poststructuralism, feminism and new materialism.
The balance sheet of 50 years of development aid
Over the past 50 years the West has invested over 3000 billion euro in development aid and already tackled many problems. Now more and more countries and organisations present themselves on the development aid scene, including China, India, and foundations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Companies, trade unions, co-operatives, schools and towns set up their own projects in remote African regions.
But can each and everybody become a development worker? Who decides what is acceptable and what is not? What is the role of the developing countries themselves? Who can tell what is good aid and what is bad aid? Is it a free market allowing everybody to do what he wants? A market without rules, with a lot of competition and little cooperation?
This book draws up the balance sheet of 50 years of development aid and provides an overview of all relevant players, of opportunities and obstacles, of successes and failures. It details numerous examples and information on development projects from all over the world. Readers may be tempted to get involved in development aid, but they will also be more cautious than before.
Etudes philosophiques des cas freudiens.
Dora, l'Homme aux rats, Hans, le Président Schreber, l'Homme aux loups... les cas freudiens sont célèbres, mais que sont-ils vraiment : des aperçus biographiques ? Des récits de cure ? On y a longtemps vu des témoignages de la manière dont les théories freudiennes ont « jailli » de l'expérience clinique. Les articles de ce recueil y font voir autre chose : des échantillons d'une pensée qui s'essaie, se met à l'épreuve, se corrige et se réinvente sans cesse ; des analyses qui interrogent la tension toujours précaire entre le normal et le pathologique. Psychanalyse et philosophie se rencontrent ici : qu'est-ce que bien vivre ? Etre en bonne santé, sans doute, s'il est vrai, comme l'affirme Freud, qu'il n'y a d'âme qu'incarnée. Mais existe-t-il une santé de l'âme ? Que serait une santé qui soit autant psychique que corporelle ? Les commentaires des grands cas freudiens réunis dans ce volume circulent à travers l'oeuvre fondatrice de la psychanalyse en questionnant autant qu'en instruisant.
Collaborateurs / Contributors:
Jens De Vleminck (Ghent University), Tomas Geyskens (Leuven), Elissa Marder (Emory University, Atlanta), Beatriz Santos (Paris), Patrick Vandermeersch (University of Groningen), Philippe Van Haute (Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen), Herman Westerink (Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen)
Essays on erudite versatility in Plutarch's works.
Plutarch was a brilliant Platonist, an erudite historian, a gifted author of highly polished literary dialogues, a priest of Apollo at Delphi, and a devoted politician in his hometown Chaeronea. He felt confident in the most technical and specialized discussions, yet was not afraid of rhetorical generalizations. In his voluminous oeuvre, he appears as a sharp polemicist and a loving father, an ardent pupil but also a kind, inspiring teacher, a sober historian and a teller of wondrous tales. In view of all these different personae, erudite versatility is without any doubt a major characteristic of Plutarch's works.
A Versatile Gentleman is dedicated to Luc Van der Stockt, professor emeritus of Greek language and literature at KU Leuven and a truly versatile gentleman. The volume aims to do justice to his and Plutarch's versatility by discussing the Chaeronean from many different angles. As such, it sheds new light on the coherence of, and the tensions in, Plutarch's thinking and writing.
Frances B. Titchener (Utah State University), John Dillon (Trinity College Dublin), Rainer Hirsch-Luipold (Universität Bern), Jan Opsomer (KU Leuven), Paola Volpe Cacciatore (Università degli studi di Salerno), Ewen Bowie (Corpus Christi College Oxford), Frederick E. Brenk (Pontifical Biblical Institute Rome), Judith Mossman (University of Nottingham), Christopher Pelling (Christ Church Oxford), Mark Beck (University of South Carolina), Jeffrey Beneker (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Geert Roskam (KU Leuven), Simon Verdegem (KU Leuven), Philip A. Stadter (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill), Lucia Athanassaki (University of Crete), Heinz Gerd Ingenkamp (Universität Bonn), Delfim F. Leão (Universidade de Coimbra), Aurelio Pérez Jiménez (Universidad de Málaga)
Muslims in Europe and the preservation of their religious-ethnic particularities.
Everyday Life Practices of Muslims in Europe explores how Muslims give meaning to Islam on a day-to-day basis. The contributions look at concrete practices, identities, memories, and normalities in daily Muslim life and provide insights to the complexities of identities. They examine Muslims' use of and construction of spaces, daily practices, forms of interaction, and modes of thinking in different areas, resulting in a thorough analysis and framework of Muslims' day-to-day life through topical chapters on food, space, entertainment, marriage, and mosque, covering both extent of hybridity and preservation of religious-ethnic particularities.
Rachel Brown (Wilfrid Laurier University), Mohammed El-Bachouti (UPF), Valentina Fedele (Università della Calabria), Diletta Guidi (École Pratique des Hautes Études), Ossame Hegazy (Bauhaus, University, Weimar), Ajmal Hussain (Aston University), Jana Jevtic (Central European University), Elsa Mescoli (University of Liège), Wim Peumans (KU Leuven), Sumeyye Ulu Sametoglu (EHESS), Leen Sterck (The Netherlands Institute for Social Research),Thijl Sunier (VU University Amsterdam), Erkan Toguslu (KU Leuven)
Des perspectives nouvelles sur les diverses faces du thème de la tradition au Moyen Age
Le volume étudie comment les médiévaux ont compris et discuté les traditions philosophiques et, ce faisant, de quelle manière ont-ils participé à en formuler de nouvelles. Il analyse également dans quelle mesure les historiens ont-ils reconstitué ce sujet. Réunissant dix-sept études de cas allant de Hugues de Saint-Victor à Pietro Pomponazzi, le volume présente des perspectives nouvelles sur les diverses faces du thème de la tradition. Certaines contributions examinent un problème ou un texte choisi comme une bonne illustration d'une époque, d'un courant doctrinal ou d'une école dans la mesure où un auteur médiéval discute autant des philosophes de l'Antiquité que de son temps. D'autres contributions mettent en question des opinions historiographiques communément acceptées, comme par exemple la présence du scepticisme ou du matérialisme au Moyen Age. Dans l'ensemble, on apporte une perspective englobante de la tradition.
The waning influence of the Catholic church in the ethical and political debate.
For centuries the Catholic Church was able to impose her ethical rules in matters related to the intimate, that is, questions concerning life (from its beginning until its end) and the family, in the so-called Catholic countries in Western Europe. When the polity started to introduce legislation that was in opposition to the Catholic ethic, the ecclesiastical authorities and part of the population reacted. The media reported massive manifestations in France against same-sex marriages and in Spain against the de-penalization of abortion. In Italy the Episcopal conference entered the political field in opposition to the relaxation of several restrictive legal rules concerning medically assisted procreation and exhorted the voters to abstain from voting so that the referendum did not obtain the necessary quorum. In Portugal, to the contrary, the Church made a "pact" with the prime minister so that the law on same-sex marriages did not include the possibility of adoption. And in Belgium the Episcopal conference limited its actions to clearly expressing with religious, legal, and anthropological arguments its opposition to such laws, which all other Episcopal conferences did also.
In this book, the authors analyse the full spectrum of the issue, including the emergence of such laws; the political discussions; the standpoints defended in the media by professionals, ethicists, and politicians; the votes in the parliaments; the political interventions of the Episcopal conferences; and the attitude of professionals. As a result the reader understands what was at stake and the differences in actions of the various Episcopal conferences. The authors also analyse the pro and con evaluations among the civil population of such actions by the Church. Finally, in a comparative synthesis, they discuss the public positions taken by Pope Francis to evaluate if a change in Church policy might be possible in the near future.
Research by GERICR (Groupe européen de recherche interdisciplinaire sur le changement religieux), a European interdisciplinary research group studying religious changes coordinated by Alfonso Pérez-Agote.
Céline Béraud (Université de Caen), Karel Dobbelaere (KU Leuven/University of Antwerp), Annalisa Frisina (Università degli Studi di Padova), Franco Garelli (Università degli Studi di Torino), Antonio Montañés (Universidad Complutense de Madrid), Maria João Oliveira (University of Porto), Enzo Pace (Università degli Studi di Padova), Alfonso Pérez-Agote (University Complutense of Madrid), Philippe Portier (École pratique des hautes études, Paris-Sorbonne), Jose Santiago (Universidad Complutense de Madrid), Roberto Francesco Scalon (Università degli Studi di Torino), Helena Vilaça (University of Porto), Liliane Voyé (Université Catholique de Louvain)
Introduction to Hui ethnic diversity in China.
As yet very little academic research has been done into the Hui people, a predominantly Muslim ethnic group in China. With particular attention to the Yunnan district community, this collection of contributions skilfully presents a wealth of information on Hui Muslims and introduces readers to the issues of Hui ethnic diversity in China. Reviewing the many aspects of the religious, educational and cultural life of Hui Muslims in China, the authors provide an ethnography in which becomes clear how traditional institutions and everyday life are adapted to local customs with respect to the Islamic identity. At the same time, the relationship between the China Republic and the Hui, an official minority of China, is discussed thoroughly.
Lesley R. Turnbull (New York University), Liang Zhang (Yunnan University), Ross Holder (Trinity College Dublin), Aaron Glasserman (Columbia University), Frauke Drewes (University of Münster), Chuang Ma (Yunnan Open University), Yu Feng (Yunnan University), Suchart Setthamalinee (Puyap University)
The history of logic and its development during the medieval period.
Radulphus Brito's Quaestiones super Priora Analytica Aristotelis is a major work written in the early 1300s which treated Aristotle's text devoted to the theory of the syllogism. Brito, perhaps one of the most influential medieval thinkers known as the Modistae, examines both categorical and hypothetical syllogisms. In his text, based on six known manuscripts which are complete or nearly complete, Brito was critical of many of the theories of his contemporary, Simon of Faversham. It should also be mentioned that Brito edited his work several times. There are at least two versions which indicate Brito returned to this material during his long career at the university in Paris. This volume is the first critical text edition of Brito's Quaestiones super Priora Analytica Aristotelis and will therefore be of great interest to those studying the history of logic and its development during the medieval period.
The impact of Averroes' natural philosophy on the history of philosophy and science.
Ibn Rushd (1126-1198) or Averroes, is widely known as the unrivalled commentator on virtually all works by Aristotle. His commentaries and treatises were used as manuals for understanding Aristotelian philosophy until the Age of the Enlightenment. Both Averroes and the movement commonly known as 'Latin Averroism' have attracted considerable attention from historians of philosophy and science. Whereas most studies focus on Averroes' psychology, particularly on his doctrine of the 'unity of the intellect', Averroes' natural philosophy as a whole and its influence still remain largely unexplored. This volume aims to fill the gap by studying various aspects of Averroes' natural philosophical thought, in order to evaluate its impact on the history of philosophy and science between the late Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period.
Jean-Baptiste Brenet (Université de Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne), Cristina Cerami (cnrs, umr 7219: sphere/chspam), Silvia Donati (Albertus-Magnus-Institut, Bonn), Dag Nikolaus Hasse (Julius-Maximilians- Universität Würzburg), Craig Martin (Oakland University), Edith Dudley Sylla (North Carolina State University), Cecilia Trifogli (All Souls College, Oxford)
'European Muslims and New Media' offers perspectives on the various ways in which Muslims use new media to form and reform Muslim consciousness, identities, and national and transnational belongings, and contest and negotiate tensions and hegemonic narratives in Western European societies. The authors explore how online discussion groups, social media communities, and other online sites act as a 'new public sphere' for Muslim youth to voice their opinions, seek new sources of knowledge, establish social relationships, and ultimately decentre established discourses that are projected on them as Muslims in Europe. The possibilities and challenges of new media transform existing debates on Islamic knowledge, authority, citizenship, communities, and networks. European Muslims and New Media critically explores the multifaceted transformations that result from Muslims using online spaces to present, represent, and negotiate their identities, ideologies, and aspirations.
Freud's Dora case and contemporary debates on gender, sexuality and queer theory.
'Dora' is one the most important and interesting case studies Sigmund Freud conducted and later described. It constitutes a key text in his oeuvre and finds itself at the crossroads of his studies in hysteria, the theory of sexuality and dream interpretation. The Dora case is both a literary and theoretically ground-breaking text and an account of a 'failed' treatment. In Dora, Hysteria and Gender renowned Freud scholars reflect on the Dora case, presenting various innovative and controversial perspectives and elaborating the significance of the text for contemporary debates on gender, sexuality and queer theory.
This volume is of interest for psychoanalysts and scholars working on psychoanalysis, sexuality, gender, queer theory, philosophical anthropology and literary studies.
Contributors: Rachel B. Blass (Heythrop College, University of London), Daniela Finzi (Sigmund Freud Foundation), Esther Hutfless (University of Vienna), Ulrike Kadi (Medical University of Vienna), Ilka Quindeau (Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences), Beatriz Santos (University Paris VII Diderot), Philippe Van Haute (Radboud University Nijmegen), Herman Westerink (Radboud University Nijmegen), Jeanne Wolff-Bernstein (Sigmund Freud University in Vienna)
Thought-provoking insights on the nexus of migration and integration beyond the national context
Across the world, and due to ongoing globalisation, migration is increasingly becoming a part of daily life. But more than ever, migration can no longer be viewed as a simple linear trajectory from A to B. The emergence of transnational communities and intense interactions between regions of origin and of destination have led to new forms of social-cultural praxis and (sub)cultures which exert an important influence on the integration of immigrants. The case of Flanders, the northern part of Belgium and a reference point for the impact of these processes across Europe, is presented as a case study in this book.
Migration and Integration in Flanders is structured in three thematic parts, opening with chapters on the imaginaries and perceptions of people in changing migration contexts. The book then proceeds with chapters which present theoretical and empiric data on changing integration dynamics in multicultural societies. The final chapter concludes with a discussion of social networks' mediating role.
The growing complexity of migration leads the contributing authors to look beyond borders, both of national frontiers - as migration by definition implies cross-border research - and of disciplines and research methods. In doing so, the present volume offers thought-provoking essays on topical issues that stir public and political debates across Europe, and contributes to fundamental discussions on changing societies.
Church leaders and their contrasting opinions in the face of the Great War
Cardinal Désiré-Joseph Mercier, Archbishop of Malines, was the incarnation of the Belgian resistance against the German occupation during the First World War. With his famous pastoral letter of Christmas 1914 'Patriotisme et Endurance' he reached a wide audience, and gained international influence and respect.
Mercier's distinct patriotic stance clearly determined his views of national politics, especially of the 'Flemish question', and his conflict with the German occupier made him a hero of the Allies. The Germans did not always know how to handle this influential man of the Church. Pope Benedict XV did not always approve of the course of action adopted by the Belgian prelate. Whereas Mercier justified the war effort as a just cause in view of the restoration of Belgium's independence, the Pope feared that "this useless massacre" meant nothing but the "suicide of civilized Europe".
Through a critical analysis of the policies of Cardinal Mercier and Pope Benedict XV, this book sheds revealing light on the contrasting positions of Church leaders in the face of the Great War.
The impact of gender on migration processes
Considering the dynamic and reciprocal relationship between gender relations and migration, the contributions in this book approach migration dynamics from a gender-sensitive perspective. Bringing together insights from various fields of study, it is demonstrated how processes of social change occur differently in distinct life domains, over time, and across countries and/or regions, influencing the relationship between gender and migration. Detailed analysis by regions, countries, and types of migration reveals a strong variation regarding levels and features of female and male migration. This approach enables us to grasp the distinct ways in which gender roles, perceptions, and relations, each embedded in a particular cultural, geographical, and socioeconomic context, affect migration dynamics. Hence, this volume demonstrates that gender matters at each stage of the migration process. In its entirety, Gender and Migration gives evidence of the unequivocal impact of gender and gendered structures, both at a micro and macro level, upon migrant's lives and of migration on gender dynamics.
Critical edition of the earliest known astrological autobiography
The present book reveals the riches of the earliest known astrological autobiography, authored by Henry Bate of Mechelen (1246-after 1310). Exploiting all resources of contemporary astrological science, Bate conducts in his Nativitas a profound self-analysis, revealing the peculiarities of his character and personality at a crucial moment of his life (1280). The result is an extraordinarily detailed and penetrating attempt to decode the fate of one's own life and its idiosyncrasies. The Astrological Autobiography of a Medieval Philosopher offers the first critical edition of Bate's Nativitas. An extensive introduction presents Bate's life and work and sheds new light on the reception and use of Greek, Latin, Arabic, and Hebrew texts among scholars in Paris at the end of the 13th century. The book thus provides a major new resource for scholars working on medieval science, autobiography, and notions of personhood and individuality.
Radicalisation is a topical and a much-discussed concept in current European societies. Its use in policy and societal discourses, such as media coverage and educational contexts, is very sensitive. This thought-provoking collection of essays critically addresses the topic of radicalisation from different angles, combining discipline-specific insights from the fields of sociology, philosophy, history, religious studies, and media studies, with new empirical data.
The authors step away from readily available explanations and rethink the notion of 'the radical'. Rather than merely focusing on individuals or ideologies, they advocate for a contextual perspective that allows to consider the complex interaction between individuals, groups, and institutions, both at a national and international level. Radicalisation: A Marginal Phenomenon, or a Mirror to Society? provides the reader not only with much-needed knowledge of the complex nature of the concept of radicalisation, but also offers insights into the various ways radicalisation processes can be triggered, prevented, or addressed.
In 1773, Pope Clement XIV suppressed the Society of Jesus. For the 823 Jesuits living in the Low Countries, it meant the end of their institutional religious life. In the Austrian Netherlands, the Jesuits were put under strict surveillance, but in the Dutch Republic they were able to continue their missionary work. It is this regional contrast and the opportunities it offered for the Order to survive that make the Low Countries an exceptional and interesting case in Jesuit history.
Just as in White Russia, former Jesuits and new Jesuits in the Low Countries prepared for the restoration of the Order, with the help of other religious, priests, and lay benefactors. In 1814, eight days before the restoration of the Society by Pope Pius VII, the novitiate near Ghent opened with eleven candidates from all over the United Netherlands. Barely twenty years later, the Order in the Low Countries - by then counting one hundred members - formed an independent Belgian Province. A separate Dutch Province followed in 1850. Obviously, the reestablishment, with new churches and new colleges, carried a heavy survival burden: in the face of their old enemies and the black legends they revived, the Jesuits had to retrieve their true identity, which had been suppressed for forty years.
The confrontation between philosophy and psychoanalysis has had its heyday. After the major debates between Paul Ricoeur, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Jacques Derrida, Gilles Deleuze, and Michel Henry, this dialogue now seems to have broken down. It has therefore proven necessary and gainful to revisit these debates to explore their re-usability and the degree to which they can provide new insights from a contemporary point of view. It can be said that contemporary philosophy suffers from an 'excess of meaning', and this is exactly where psychoanalysis comes in and may raise key questions. This is precisely what a philosophical reading of Freud demonstrates. To say 'Nothing to It' indicates that the 'It'-or Freudian Id-is not visible as it never shows itself as a 'phenomenon'. Such a reading of Freud exemplifies how psychoanalysis has a special role to play in phenomenology's development.
Peter de Rivo (c.1420-1499), a renowned philosopher active at the University of Leuven, is today mostly remembered for his controversial role in the quarrel over future contingents (1465-1475). Much less known are his contributions to historical chronology, in particular his attempts to determine the dates of Christ's birth and death. In 1471, Peter made an original contribution to this long-standing discussion with his Dyalogus de temporibus Christi, which reconciles conflicting views by rewriting the history of the Jewish and Christian calendars. Later in his career, Peter tackled the issue of calendar reform in his Reformacio kalendarii Romani (1488) and engaged in a heated debate with Paul of Middelburg on the chronology of Christ. This book edits the Dyalogus and Reformacio and sets out their context and transmission in an extensive historical introduction.
Das Buch bietet die erste kritische Edition der Artikel XXV-XXVII der Summa (Quaestiones ordinariae) des Heinrich von Gent. Dabei leistet es einen Beitrag zur Geschichte der Formen und Pfade der Ideenvermittlung im Mittelalter und zur mittelalterlichen Buchkultur.
Die Kollationierung der Handschriften der Artikel XXV-XXVII und die Untersuchung ihrer materiellen Überlieferung haben der Editorin erlaubt, den Prozess der Ausarbeitung, Publikation und Verbreitung einer Portion von Heinrichs Summa über einen längeren Zeitraum in großer Detailgenauigkeit zu rekonstruieren.
Die hier edierten Artikel enthalten ein Kernstück von Heinrichs theologischem und metaphysischem System. In der Behandlung von Einheit, Natur und Leben Gottes entfalten sie eine rationale Darstellung des ersten Prinzips.
Among a wide spectrum of American Protestants, the horrors of World War II triggered grave concern for Europe's religious future. They promptly mobilised resources to revive Europe's Christian foundation. Saving the Overlooked Continent reconstructs this surprising redirection of Western missions. For the first time, Europe became the recipient of America's missionary enterprise.
The American missionary impulse matched the military, economic, and political programs of the U.S., all of which positioned the United States to become Europe's dominant partner and point of cultural reference. One result was the importation of the internal conflicts that vexed American Protestants - theological tensions between modernists and traditionalists, and organisational competition between established churches and independent parachurch associations. Europe was offered a new slate of options that sparked civic and ecclesiastical responses.
But behind these contending religious networks lay a considerable overlap of goals and means based on a shared missionary trajectory. By the mid-1960s, most Protestant American agencies admitted that the expectation of a religious revival had been too optimistic despite their initiatives having led to an integration of Europe in the global evangelical network. The agencies reconsidered their assumptions and redefined their strategies. The initial opposition between inclusive and exclusive approaches abated, and the path opened to a sustained cooperation among once-fierce opponents.
A Text Worthy of Plotinus makes available for the first time information on the collaborative work that went into the completion of the first reliable edition of Plotinus' Enneads: Plotini Opera, editio maior, three volumes (Brussels, Paris, and Leiden, 1951-1973), followed by the editio minor, three volumes (Oxford, 1964-1983). Pride of place is given to the correspondence of the editors, Paul Henry S.J. and Hans-Rudolf Schwyzer, with other prominent scholars of late antiquity, amongst whom are E.R. Dodds, B.S. Page, A.H. Armstrong, and J. Igal S.J. Also included in the volume are related documents consisting in personal memoirs, course handouts and extensive biographical notices of the two editors as well as of those other scholars who contributed to fostering the revival of Plotinus in the latter half of the 20th century. Taken together, letters and documents let the reader into the problems - codicological, exegetical, and philosophical - that are involved in the interpretation of medieval manuscripts and their transcription for modern readers. Additional insights are provided into the nature of collaborative work involving scholars from different countries and traditions.
A Text Worthy of Plotinus will prove a crucial archive for generations of scholars. Those interested in the philosophy of Plotinus will find it a fount of information on his style, manner of exposition, and handling of sources. The volume will also appeal to readers interested in broader trends in 20th century scholarship in the fields of Classics, History of Ideas, Theology, and Religion.
Thomas Aquinas' Summa theologiae is one of the classics in the history of theology and philosophy. Beyond its influence in the Middle Ages, its importance is also borne out by the fact that it became the subject of commentary. During the sixteenth century it was gradually adopted as the official text for the teaching of scholastic theology in most European Catholic universities. As a result, university professors throughout Europe and the colonial Americas started lecturing and producing commentaries on the Summa and using it as a starting point for many theological and philosophical discussions. Some of the works of major authors such as Vitoria, Soto, Molina, Suárez and Arriaga are for all intents and purposes commentaries on the Summa. This book is the first scholarly endeavour to investigate this commentary tradition. As it examines late scholasticism against its institutional backdrop and contains studies of unpublished manuscripts and texts, it will remain an authoritative source for the research of late scholasticism.