Wherever you are right now, there's a good chance that an object in your vicinity is connected to the stories told in this book. The phone in your pocket, the chair you're sitting on, or the shirt you're wearing - they likely travelled to you on a large container ship, which burned bunker fuel. Alternatively, petroleum-based substances were likely used in their production, which involved the generation of waste oils. We rarely talk about waste oils or bunker fuel, yet they are essential to our modern existence. They are also dangerously intertwined: waste oils are systematically blended into bunker fuel at the cost of our health and that of our planet. These activities violate international and EU law. In the Netherlands, they are criminal offences. Also in the Netherlands, unique efforts have been made to fight these crimes. This book draws on never-before used data on both crimes and enforcement to shed light on this murky world. Whether you are professionally or privately engaged in contrasting corporate crime or environ mental harm, this book can enhance your perspective and toolset.
Afghanistan is often viewed as a failing state. The international intervention, following 9/11, could fit with the country's domestic modernisation efforts, King Ammanullah's in the 1920s and Zahir Shah's in the 1960s. Yet, such developments had been stalled time and again, first due to conservative resistance, then the 1979 Soviet occupation, and the subsequent rise of Mujahidin and Taliban. The post-2001 overhaul remained an outsider's enterprise and lacked proper connection to Afghanistan's political and legal institutions. Interventions in the criminal justice sector focused more on the War on Terror than on the development of criminal justice institutions such as prisons.
Historically, various Afghan regimes used prisons to lock up adversaries. Each regime change, saw prisoners become wardens and vice versa and prison management was dominated by the military. Pul-e-charkhi, a Russian era and high security prison near Kabul, with app. 13000 prisoners - half of them being Taliban fighters - was a case study. The author conducted numerous interviews with inmates about their conditions, hoping to help improve the prison's rehabilitation efforts. Yet, apart from some education and industrial programmes, rehabilitation activities remained very limited. At present, the Taliban are in control again. This study offers little hope for short-term improvements.
This is a volume in the series of the Meijers Research Institute and Graduate School of the Leiden Law School of Leiden University. This study is part of the Law School's research programme `Criminal Justice: Legitimacy, Accountability and Effectivity' and research programme `Effective Protection of Fundamental Rights in a pluralist world'.
Criminal justice is primarily designed to serve the public interest in relation to criminal acts. Restorative justice is designed to address the harmrelated needs of individuals in the aftermath of wrongdoing. These distinct aims require such different processes and priorities that any attempt to integrate restorative justice within the criminal justice system will almost invariably undermine the quality and effectiveness of both. In this book, the author argues that the optimal relationship between the two should therefore be one of maximum independence: the instruments of the state should not be used to impose or enforce the decision to participate in restorative justice, any component of the restorative justice process or its outcome. It is also suggested that, in the absence of legislative innovation, this kind of separation is likely to require that restorative justice is situated after a case has actually exited the justice system, or after it has, in legal terms, effectively done so, as in a post-sentence context.
The democratisation of the EU is a fascinating process with an unforeseen outcome: the European Union is emerging as a new kind of international organisation with an equally innovative model of governance. Seventy years after the start of European integration, this book reveals that the determination to lay the foundations for an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe has not led to the creation of a federal state or a confederal association of states. Instead, the EU has evolved over the decades from a union of democratic states to a European democracy. At present, the EU can be characterised as a democratic union of democratic states', while it may be regarded from the global perspective as a democratic regional organisation'.
The outcome of the EU's drive towards ever closer union is as consequential for the study of public law and the humanities as the replacement of the Ptolemaic world vision with the heliocentric view of Copernicus and Galilei has been for science. For the first time since the start of the Early Modern Era, states have broken the vicious circle of war by pooling sovereignty. While the European states learned the hard way in the 20th century that their continent had become too small for absolute sovereignty, the superpowers of the 21st century should perceive the global dangers of climate change, pandemics and nuclear proliferation as warning signals that the world has become too small for unrestrained exercise of absolute sovereignty too.
This book is the result of an analysis and reflection on crime risks and financial criminal activity taking place in European professional football in recent decades. Its main goal is to discuss some relevant criminological issues in relation to the financing and ownership of professional football clubs and the transfer of players. As the title suggests, the book covers both the outrageous business patterns and habits - and the associated high risk of financial crime - that have manifested themselves in this line of industry, as well as our inclination to turn a blind eye to these developments (like an ostrich with its head in the sand). Curiosity was the main instigator of this book, in terms of identifying the major problems and criminal activity in the professional football industry, grasping the motivations of those involved and understanding the societal reaction, or lack thereof, towards these problems. In the second part of the book, the author suggests some strategies that may assist in making the market of European professional football more crime-resistant. These strategies are linked to changes in the organizational culture, structure and forms of supervision and control.
This volume contains the contributions of the 21st Cross-Border Crime Colloquium webinar hosted by the Norwegian Police University College, Kongsvinger and organised 22-24 August 2021. Despite the pandemic, the Colloquium Group decided to return to the `criminal normal' and the related research on (cross-border) organised crime, corruption, labour exploitation, fraud, ecological crime and the search for criminal revenues. These are partly old themes, some getting renewed attention, such as the hidden wealth of corrupt political elite, whether Nigerian godfathers or Russian oligarchs.
A criminal theme with global implications is the growing `greencriminality' or crime against the nature. Forests are illegally cut clear in Eastern Europe to satisfy the hunger of the European furniture industry: cheap furniture from stolen wood from the Carpathian or further east leaving behind devastated landscapes. Also, criminal waste traffi cking
from industrialised farming fi nding its way through criminal channels is a recognised cross-border organised crime.
In peer reviewed contributions international experts present a broad range of criminal phenomena and policies: from a 25-year review of organised crime in The Czech Republic, labour exploitation and Nigerian organised crime in Italy, Middle-Eastern criminal clans in Germany, and international fuel fraud to criminal asset recovery policy in the Netherlands.
Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMCGs) have been increasingly viewed as a threat to society. Members have been associated with disturbances of public order as well as various forms of organized crime. In response, the authorities in the Netherlands, Germany, and Belgium have each implemented their own zero-tolerance strategies to prevent and repress
outlaw biker crime and deviance. In the cross-border Meuse Rhine Euregion, where the three countries intersect, the national borders may provide opportunities to outlaw bikers while at the same time limiting authorities in their response. In examining the role of the border, this book deals with the history of OMCGs and the responses in each country, the authorities involved in the response, and contemporary problems in the Meuse Rhine Euregion.
This book is intended for policy makers and practitioners working in the field of organized crime and public disorder committed by outlaw bikers, especially those working in cross-border regions.
This text was presented as inaugural speech, held on the occasion of accepting the chair of Social Resilience and Security with a study focus on Violence and Interventions at Leiden University on May 30, 2022.
Increasingly, teachers, youth workers, and social workers are being called on to `build resilience to radicalisation'. But, what does this actually mean? What is resilience to radicalisation, how can it be built, and whose role is it?
Drawing on an interdisciplinary analysis of policies and the perspectives of practitioners themselves, this book offers a fresh look at these questions. Through unpacking different ways of thinking about resilience to radicalisation, this book aims to bring clarity to some of the key issues and debates involved. The book navigates between important critiques of resilience and the need for a practical and legitimate response to the challenge of extremism. Finally, it suggests a way forward for those grappling with this issue.
Over the past ten to fifteen years the police in many Western European countries have undergone a series of profound organisational changes. The police now appear to operate at a greater distance from citizens, they are more impersonal and decontextualized and have become more dependent on digitalised data systems.
These changes are captured through the concept of the `abstract police' and in this international collection of essays, leading policing scholars use this concept to make sense of contemporary changes to police organisations.
Drawing on empirical evidence from a wide range of policing contexts, the individual chapters address major questions about current developments in policing:
How are police organisations being shaped by the social, cultural, technological and political contexts in which they operate?
How does the concept of the abstract police help understanding of the complex interplay between change and continuity in policing?
Is the emergence of an abstract police the unintended outcome of processes of rationalization or a deliberate response to the new complexities of late modernity?
This book addresses the relationship between restorative justice and children's rights, an issue of increasing relevance to restorative justice theory and practice that has thus far received relatively little attention. Readers will find useful reviews of international human rights documents and of legislation, policy and practices in countries in Europe, Africa, Asia, South America, North America, and Oceania. Each of the chapters demonstrates the compatibility between children's rights and restorative justice. Adopting a rights-based approach is an important means for countries that are interested in further developing restorative justice practices, as it helps restorative processes that are new to the juvenile justice system to gain credibility as well as safeguard young participants' rights in these processes. In countries where restorative justice has been developed, a rights approach can stimulate innovation and applications beyond the child justice system. The book focuses on both needs and rights of children and young people who caused harm or suffered harm. Some chapters also adopt a critical point of view to explore the tensions between rights and restorative justice in relation to colonisation, welfare models, and professional privilege.
In this anthology, Professor Emeritus Lode Walgrave, a pioneer in the field of juvenile justice and restorative justice, revisits a selection of his publications, going back to the late 1990s to the late 2010s, on restorative justice as a response to offending. These include reflections on why restorative justice is valuable as well as on how it can and should be implemented. Can reparation be imposed and how would that relate to retribution? Is there room for punishment? The broader field is explored by examining how restorative justice contributes to civilising criminal justice and to a `criminology of trust', all based on his socio-ethical concept of `common self-interest'. In newly written introductory and concluding chapters, Walgrave explains how this journey in writing resulted in developing a consequential approach to restorative justice, which prioritises restorative responses to crime and delinquency.
Fighting Poverty and Violence analyzes what is needed to abolish the worst forms of human deprivation. Based on many international studies about the UN Sustainable Development Goals, it concludes that only two percent of world income is needed to provide all human beings with safe drinking water, sanitation, food, basic education, and simple health care. The poorest people also incur the largest numbers of victims due to wars, disasters, and pandemics. This book contains practical suggestions for more effective civic and political action to reach the universal goal of well-being in peace.
With pictures by Ton Koene
Do you want to design a scientific poster that effectively conveys your research results? One that looks professional, and communicates a clear message? This guide provides 8 easy steps towards the creation of such a poster. It will guide you through the idea process and composing your main message, while giving you the tools you need to draft and create the visual design that fits your needs. The 8 steps are easy to implement and are accompanied by examples for further context.
This step-by-step design guide provides useful tools, tips and examples for scientists, students and for anyone who has to make scientific posters or science visuals.
In the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, governments introduced stress tests to measure and monitor banks' health. Breaking the Bank? assesses whether the EU-wide banking stress test is a good regulatory tool. It deals with some of the key questions that still linger about the exercise: do the benefits of the stress test outweigh the enormous cost? Is it tough enough on banks? And, does it tell us which banks are healthy or not?
Beyond the scope of the stress test, the book addresses how indicators are made and to what effect. This is increasingly important as indicators are produced through socio-political power plays and negotiations. Before we can use these indicators in policy and public debate, we need to understand where they come from and what they do.
This volume includes topics analysing the meaning of the Covid-19 pandemic and the social responses to it in various domains: from sex work to wildlife crimes, from new forms of social control in Brazil, Ecuador, Canada and Thailand to the role of music, the symbolism of face masks, the spreading of conspiracy theories, domestic violence, and more. It is composed of studies conducted by criminologists who belong to the `Utrecht school'. Criminology `Utrecht style' is unique in the world in the sense that cultural, critical and global criminology are central to its research and teaching programme, ethnographic and netnographic methods are rigorously applied and further developed. The researches here presented - in all their variety, improvisation, and cross-pollination - contribute to the body of cultural criminological work, and go beyond. They explore themes and concepts underexposed in cultural criminology so far, and contribute to the further growth of this academic perspective through their combined understandings of crime and social reactions under extreme social circumstances.
In social care, mobilizing network support is a topical issue. Networks are at the heart of Family Group Conferencing, or Family Group Decision Making. FGC originated in New Zealand but has spread to many countries worldwide. In this book, FGC researchers with different methodological orientations discuss their findings and reflect candidly on the methodological choices they made and the challenges faced. The `what works' versus `context' controversy in social work research is highlighted from different perspectives. Moreover, the interaction between FGC and the care system in which it is embedded, is illustrated through a variety of disciplines including governance studies, law, and economic analysis.
The wealth of insights collated make this book unique. The book is relevant for researchers, care professionals and (inter-) national policy makers. They will benefit from the experiences and visions shared in this book.
Ten different research teams have contributed to this book. The editors are associate professors at Erasmus University, Rotterdam. This publication was financially supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research and the Municipality of Rotterdam.
This books critically explores media framing of human trafficking for sexual exploitation in UK, Dutch and Serbian media. It draws upon data from content analysis of online news reports and interviews with journalists and anti-trafficking professionals in order to further explore the framing of trafficking, its production and consequences. Through a combination of quantitative, qualitative and visual research methods, this book offers a comprehensive insight into the
mediated representation of trafficking and addresses wider social and political implications of such portrayal.
The media play an important role in fighting trafficking that expands beyond awareness raising and prevention of the crime. Reporting by the press can help mobilise public support, influence policy, monitor institutional response to trafficking, deconstruct stereotypes and foster a supportive environment in which victims recover. Therefore this book is relevant not only for criminologists, media and communications scholars, but it is also a useful source for anti-trafficking and media professionals that can find the set of recommendations leading towards a more responsible reporting on trafficking in human beings.
Crime can be seen as an act of defi ance against the rule of law, particularly if is committed with intent. This intension is often to make unlawful gains, whether by theft, corruption or taking part in illegal markets, which in Europe are most often cross-border in nature. This entails that criminal defi ance is not just a national issue: theft or fraud can be committed locally, while handling the illicit proceeds may require a cross-border movement. Obviously not every state faces the same defi ance, or prioritises the same defi ance. That may induce stronger states, for example the USA in its `war-on' policy, to exert pressure on smaller states to accept the same interpretation (and legislation) of criminal defi ance. Such `legislative imperialism' may itself be considered as defi ant.
Criminal defi ance is risky: the authorities do not like to be seen as `soft' and must visibly `hit back'. So successful criminals must keep a low profi le, though some crime groups, such as the criminal motor-cycle gangs, defy this principle by ostentatious conduct. Likewise, in the case of grand corruption in states where corruption has become endemic, we see criminal defi ance, in the case of some eastern European countries the defi ance by oligarchs, being a public matter.
The 20th Cross-border Crime Colloquium, hosted in 2019 by the Willem Pompe Institute of Utrecht University, presents this peer-reviewed volume to which 32 authors from all over Europe have contributed. It covers a broad range of expertise and original research projects: from the UK, Germany and further to Russian Siberia and back to the frayed fringes of the Mediterranean shores where a host of migrant workers is ready to defy fate for a better life.
The social, economic and technological developments of the late modern society have radically changed policing approaches both at national and supranational levels. With the anti-terrorism discourse and the global crises of mobilities, the security needs of citizens is now at the pinnacle of government priorities. At the same time, traditional law enforcement faces an epistemological crisis through the digitalisation and privatization of security. Governments, and especially the police, are expected to either prevent or respond to security threats, and if necessary, to ensure order through rigorous measures. The traditional means of policing, however, is met with increasing difficulties to sustain their legitimacy on all fronts.
Regarding the current subject of public security, several challenges can be identified. The shifting relationship between organizational and management rules between the state and other governing bodies, the use of new technologies, and the fusion of different security units, such as intelligence services, the military, and the police, all contribute to new tensions in policing practices. These changes urge the need of a reflective policing science and the adaptation of existing theoretical approaches. Although several conceptual differentiations are made between policing practices, hardly any theoretical studies discuss the implication of current contextual differences between traditional welfare states and post-transitional societies.
This book provides a critical interdisciplinary approach through contextualized thematic analyses of policing practices after the digital turn. All topics are discussed from different conceptual perspectives, and will assess how digitalization, global threats and privatization have changed traditional policing approaches.
While challenging existing theoretical approaches in Anglo-Saxon policing studies, this editorial volume aims to promote critical law enforcement studies and the need for more empirical research and new conceptual methodologies in a digitized society.
This book is about the concerns and unremitting attempts of Dutch state authorities to control and raise barriers against outlaw motorcycle gangs. It discusses how Dutch mayors go to great lengths to prevent the settlement of outlaw motorcycle gangs in clubhouses and bars; how state authorities look for ways to divert members away from civil service and private security companies; how the Dutch National Police attempts to frustrate the internal cohesiveness of outlaw motorcycle gangs through criminal investigations; and why the Dutch courts recently banned a number of clubs at the request of the Public Prosecution Service. In the attempt to describe, understand and explain this approach, this empirical study builds on the work of several scholars who all in their own way characterized contemporary society by the efforts to prevent crime in the earliest stages possible, which attempts are inherently coupled with a focus on the `future', `threats', `dangers', `indicators', `barriers' and `risks'. By conducting a social constructivist analysis through time, the author reveals that the approach to outlaw motorcycle gangs has made a 180-degree shift from inclusion in the 1970s to exclusion in present times. In doing so, it is argued that today's efforts to raise preventive barriers against outlaw motorcycle gangs must not be solely explained by the urge to prevent crime, but also as a way to mark the moral boundaries of society.
Conflicts and International Crimes: an Introduction to Research Methods gives an overview of basic research methods and statistics for the analysis of international crimes: genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. After an introduction to general social science research methodology, it discusses particularities of criminological research as well as tailored techniques for criminology, such as victim surveys and randomized response techniques.
Next it discusses specific techniques for assessing the prevalence of international crimes, borrowing from epidemiology, biology and social science/criminology. Methods for the analysis of the etiology and responses to international crimes are illustrated, as well as general social science and tailored methods for the analysis of the impact of conflicts.
The book uses a minimum of formulas and many examples from well-known recent conflicts in which atrocities were committed, such as Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia and Darfur, as well as from more distant confl icts. It is geared towards students as well as social science and legal scholars studying international crimes and their aftermath.
The Praxis of Justice brings together original contributions on restorative justice centering on the work of Ivo Aertsen, Emeritus Professor of Criminology in the Faculty of Law, KU Leuven. The work of Ivo Aertsen has impacted not only his country, Belgium, but the whole world. In recognition of a worthy life, his friends and colleagues of different generations and from all around the world have created this Liber Amicorum, as a living testament to friendship and accomplishment. The contributions in the book are both diverse and complementary as colours and motives of a tapestry, ranging from fully fledged scholarly reflections to personal anecdotes, memories and letters. The book will be especially interesting for anyone interested in restorative justice in general, and in the work of Ivo Aertsen in particular.
National system striving for protecting prisoners' labor and social security rights has been conducted in legislative area in many countries all over the world. And nowadays, national law concerning the protection of prisoners' rights is trying to become more substantial and in tune with international standards. Then while launching penal reforms on prisoners' labor and social security rights in the present and the future, the national legislator might want to be provided with insights and recommendations resulting from academic research. Thus, this book could facilitate them to understand to what extent experiences borrowed from international legal systems could be applied in national legal arrangements in view of an improvement of the protection of prisoners' labor and social security rights. Above all, this book seeks to provide references for national legislation, with the research findings serving as a guide for any country willing to protect prison labor according to worldwide recognized legal standards.