Applications, possibilities, and limitations of handheld XRF in art conservation and archaeology.
Over the last decade the technique of X-ray fluorescence has evolved, from dependence on laboratory-based standalone units to field use of portable and lightweight handheld devices. These portable instruments have given researchers in art conservation and archaeology the opportunity to study a broad range of materials with greater accessibility and flexibility than ever before.
In addition, the low relative cost of handheld XRF has led many museums, academic institutions, and cultural centres to invest in the devices for routine materials analysis purposes. Although these instruments often greatly simplify data collection, proper selection of analysis conditions and interpretation of the data still require an understanding of the principles of x-ray spectroscopy. These instruments are often marketed and used as 'point and shoot' solutions; however, their inexpert use can easily generate deceptive or erroneous results.
This volume focuses specifically on the applications, possibilities, and limitations of handheld XRF in art conservation and archaeology. The papers deal with experimental methodologies, protocols, and possibilities of handheld XRF analysis in dealing with the complexity of materials encountered in this research.
J. Aimers (State University of New York), T. Barrett (University of Iowa), A. Bezur (The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston), R. Brill (Corning Museum of Glass), F. Casadio (Art Institute of Chicago), M. Donais (Saint Anselm College), D. Farthing (State University of New York), J. Furgeson (University of Missouri), D. George (Saint Anselm College), B. Kaiser (Bruker Elemental), A. Kaplan (Getty Conservation Institute), J. Lang, (University of Iowa), J. Mass (Winterthur Museum), C. Matsen (Winterthur Museum), C. McGlinchey (Museum of Modern Art), H. Neff (California State University Long Beach), C. Patterson (Getty Conservation Institute), R. Shannon (Bruker-Elemental), A. Shugar (Buffalo State College), J. Sirois (Canadian Conservation Institute), D. Smith (National Gallery of Art), D. Stulik (Getty Conservation Institute), K. Trentelman (Getty Conservation Institute), N. Turner (Getty Conservation Institute), F. Paredes Umaña (University of Pennsylvania), B. Voorhies (University of California), J. Wade (National Science Foundation)
Based on intensive research in the archives of six countries, this monograph presents an in-depth analysis of Belgium's monetary and financial history during the Second World War. Exploring Belgium's financial and business links with Germany, France, The Netherlands, Great Britain, the United States, and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the study focuses on the roles played in this complex wartime network by the Central Bank and private bankers in Brussels, by the Belgian government in exile in London, and by the Belgian minister plenipotentiary in New York. Among the many subjects arising in the course of the analysis are: German attempts to plunder Belgium and Belgian resistance strategies; the peripeteia of the Belgian gold reserve, given in custody to the central banks of France and Great Britain; the role of the Belgian Congo; Belgium's participation in the discussions leading up to the Bretton Woods conference; and the negotiations for creating a Customs Union, the so-called Benelux, blueprint for the 1958 Treaty of Rome. The final part of the book analyzes the famous monetary reform devised by Belgian Minister of Finance Camille Gutt at the liberation of the country in September 1944. A Small Nation in the Turmoil of the Second World War is a magisterial contribution to European history, Belgian history, and the history of the Second World War.
For all archaeological artefactual evidence, the study of the provenance, production technology and trade of raw materials must be based on archaeometry. Whereas the study of the provenance and trade of stone and ceramics is already well advanced, this is not necessarily the case for ancient glass. The nature of the raw materials used and the geographical location of their transformation into artefacts often remain unclear. Currently, these questions are addressed by the use of radiogenic isotope analysis. With the specific information the technique provides, archaeologists can further their understanding of the of ancient glass production, based not only on typo-morphological features but also on exact scientific methods. The book captures the state of the art in this rapidly advancing field. It includes methodological papers on isotope analysis, innovative applications of several isotope systems to current questions in glass and glaze research, and advances in the knowledge of the economy of vitreous materials.
The Sagalassos Archaeological Research Project has made interdisciplinary practices part of its scientific strategy from the very beginning. The project is internationally acknowledged for important achievements in this respect. Aspects of its approach to ancient Sagalassos can be considered ground-breaking for the archaeology of Anatolia and the wider fields of classical and Roman archaeology.
Now that its first project director, Professor Marc Waelkens - University of Leuven -, is at the stage of shifting practices, from an active academic career to an active academic retirement, this volume represents an excellent opportunity to reflect on the wider impact of the Sagalassos Archaeological Research Project. The contributors to the honorific publication build on the methods and practices of interdisciplinary archaeology from a wide variety of angles, in order to highlight the crucial role of interdisciplinary research for creating progress in the interpretation of the human past or nurture developments in their own disciplines. In particular, the contributors consider how the parcours of the Sagalassos Project helped to pave their ways.
Contributors are international authorities in the field of Anatolian and classical archaeology, bio-archaeology, geo-archaeology, history and cultural heritage.
In this thorough textual, historical, and doctrinal study the author seeks to clarify the relationship between two prominent mystics of the fourteenth century: Meister Eckhart, the German Dominican, and Jan van Ruusbroec, the Brabantine Augustinian. Special attention is paid to Ruusbroec's criticism of mystical tenets circulating in Brabant at that time which were both textually and doctrinally related to Eckhart's condemned propositions in the papal bull In agro dominico. This fact implies that Ruusbroec was confronted with the impact of the condemnation of Eckhart's doctrines on the people in Brabant. Situating Ruusbroec's life and works within the aftermath of Eckhart's arrival, the author elucidates Ruusbroec's position regarding the relevant mystical themes in the later Middle Ages, and follows a process of critical inheritance of mystical tradition from Eckhart to Ruusbroec.
New insights into Pietro d'Abano's unique approach to translations.
The commentary of Pietro d'Abano on Bartholomew's Latin translation of Pseudo-Aristotle's Problemata Physica, published in 1310, constitutes an important historical source for the investigation of the complex relationship between text, translation, and commentary in a non-curricular part of the corpus Aristotelicum.
As the eight articles in this volume show, the study of Pietro's commentary not only provides valuable insights into the manner in which a commentator deals with the problems of a translated text, but will also bring to light the idiosyncrasy of Pietro's approach in comparison to his contemporaries and successors, the particularities of his commentary in light of the habitual exegetical practices applied in the teaching of regular curricular texts, as well as the influence of philosophical traditions outside the strict framework of the medieval arts faculty.
Joan Cadden (University of California, Davis), Gijs Coucke (KU Leuven), Béatrice Delaurenti (École des Hautes Études et Sciences Sociales - Paris), Pieter De Leemans (KU Leuven), Françoise Guichard-Tesson (KU Leuven), Danielle Jacquart (École Pratique des Hautes Études - Paris), Christian Meyer (Centre d'Études supérieures de la Renaissance - Tours), Iolanda Ventura (CNRS - Université d'Orléans)
A panoramic picture of international politics and the formation of the modern State. The opposition to the omnipotence of the State - as symbolised by Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan (1651) - had a significant impact on the political organisation of European society. A liberal strategy intended to provide a protective legal status for individual citizens, whereas a social strategy aimed to strengthen the social fabric to counterbalance the power of the State. Gradually both strategies became interwoven. The Struggle with Leviathan pays special attention to the social strategy, developed by conservative and ecclesiastical circles against the omnipotence of the State, and is structured around the fascinating biography of the Austrian diplomat Gustav von Blome, a grandson of Metternich and an important opponent of Bismarck. He proved to be a transitional figure between aristocratic conservatism and Christian democracy, which had a great influence on European integration after 1945. Besides Blome, several other dramatis personae - statesmen, prelates, political and social activists - are featured. As a result the book reads like a compelling narrative. At the same time, it offers a broadly sketched historical fresco of international politics and the gradual formation of the modern State. The original Dutch edition of this book, Het gevecht met Leviathan, has been highly praised in the Dutch and Flemish press, and was awarded the biennial international Arenberg Prize for European History and Culture.
nterdisciplinary study on the role of earthquakes in the eastern Mediterranean. Does the "Minoan myth" still stand up to scientific scrutiny? Since the work of Sir Arthur Evans at Knossos (Crete, Greece), the romanticized vision of the Cretan Bronze Age as an era of peaceful prosperity only interrupted by the catastrophic effects of natural disasters has captured the popular and scientific imagination. Its impact on the development of archaeology, archaeoseismology, and earthquake geology in the eastern Mediterranean is considerable. Yet, in spite of more than a century of archaeological explorations on the island of Crete, researchers still do not have a clear understanding of the effects of earthquakes on Minoan society. This volume, gathering the contributions of Minoan archaeologists, geologists, seismologists, palaeoseismologists, geophysicists, architects, and engineers, provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary appraisal of the role of earthquakes in Minoan society and in Minoan archaeology - what we know, what are the remaining issues, and where we need to go.
A well-preserved early Middle Palaeolithic site set against a wider northwestern European context
The shift from Lower to Middle Palaeolithic in northwestern Europe (dated to around 300,000-250,000 years ago) remains poorly understood and underexplored compared to more recent archaeological transitions. During this period, stone tool technologies underwent significant changes but the limited number of known sites and the general low spatio-temporal resolution of the archaeological record in many cases has impeded detailed behavioural inferences.
Brickyard-quarrying activities at Kesselt-Op de Schans (Limburg, Belgium) led to the discovery and excavation of a well-preserved early Middle Palaeolithic level buried beneath a 10 m thick loess-palaeosol sequence. The present volume offers a comprehensive report on the site, dated to around 280,000 years ago, set against a wider northwestern European context. An in-depth study of the lithic assemblage, including an extensive refitting analysis, provides detailed information on the technological behaviour of prehistoric hominins in the Meuse basin during this crucial time period.
The changing attitude of Catholic culture towards modernity.
After decades of a problematic, if not plainly hostile, approach to modernity by Catholic culture, the 1960s marked the beginning of a new era. As the Church employed a more positive approach to the world, voices in the Catholic milieu embraced a radical perspective, channeling the need for social justice for the poor and the oppressed. The alternative and complementary world views of 'universalism' and 'liberation' would drive the engagement of Catholics for generations to come, shaping the idea of international community in Catholic culture. Because of its traditional connection with the papacy and because of its prominent role in the map of European progressive Catholicism, Italy stands out as an ideal case study to follow these dynamics. By locating the Italian scenario in a broader geographical frame, Universalism and Liberation offers a new vantage point from which to investigate the social and political relevance of religion in an age of crisis.
How churches in Northern Europe reinvented their role as providers of social relief.
Charity is a word that fits well in the history of religion and churches, whereas the concept of social reform seems to belong more to the vocabulary of the modern welfare states. Christian charity found itself, during the long nineteenth century, within the maelstrom of social turmoil. In this context of social unrest, although charity managed to confirm its relevance, it was also subjected to fierce criticism, as well as to substitute state-run forms of social care and insurance.
The history of the welfare states remained all too blind to religion. This fourth volume in the series 'Dynamics of Religious Reform' unravels how the churches in Britain and Ireland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium shaped and adjusted their understanding of poverty. It reveals how they struggled with the 'social question' and often also with the modern nation states to which they belonged. Either in the periphery of public assistance or in a dynamic interplay with the state, political parties and society at large, the churches reinvented their tradition as providers of social relief.
Andreas Holzem (Universität Tübingen), Dáire Keogh (St Patrick's College, Dublin City University), Frances Knight (The University of Nottingham), Nina Koefoed (Aarhus Universitet), Katharina Kunter (Germany), Bernhard Schneider (Universität Trier), Aud V. Tønnessen (Universitetet Oslo), Annelies van Heijst (Tilburg University), H.D. van Leeuwen and M.H.D. van Leeuwen (Universiteit Utrecht), Leen Van Molle (KU Leuven).
The construction of gender in Belgian Catholicism.
Although women were called the 'pious sex' much earlier, it was during the nineteenth century, when the differences between men and women were being made more explicit, that an intense bond between women and religion was developed. Religiosity was thought to be a 'natural' part of femininity and turned religious masculinity into an oddity. This clear-cut gender ideology, however, remains an ideology (prescribed and contested) that needs to be put in the perspective of its context of origin, the bourgeois milieu. How were these gender identities constructed and by whom?
With this volume Van Osselaer seeks to clarify how the gender differentiation was created among Belgian Catholics. She brings to light the extent to which religiosity was inscribed in these constructions and how religious teachings contributed to it. It is clear that the limitations of the 'feminization' thesis, a master narrative that has strongly contributed to the introduction of women in religious history, have gradually become more visible. Documenting pastoral care, the devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus and Catholic Action, The Pious Sex offers critical commentaries on the master narratives, suggesting that even men could belong to a 'pious sex'.
Christian ideas on family, religion, and the home in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
The cult of domesticity has often been linked to the privatization of religion and the idealisation of the motherly ideal of the 'angel in the house'. This book revisits the Christian home of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and sheds new light on the stereotypical distinction between the private and public spheres and their inhabitants. Emphasizing the importance of patriarchal domesticity during the period and the frequent blurring of boundaries between the Christian home and modern society, the case studies included in this volume call for a more nuanced understanding of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Christian ideas on family, religion, and the home.
Science as an instrument to justify religious missions in secular society.
The relationship between religion and science is complex and continues to be a topical issue. However, it is seldom zoomed in on from both Protestant and Catholic perspectives. By doing so the contributing authors in this collection gain new insights into the origin and development of missiology. Missiology is described in this book as a "project of modernity," a contemporary form of apologetics. "Scientific apologetics" was the way to justify missions in a society that was rapidly becoming secularized.
Mission & Science deals with the interaction between new scientific disciplines (historiography, geography, ethnology, anthropology, linguistics) and new scientific insights (Darwin's evolutionary theory, heliocentrism), as well as the role of the papacy and what inspired missionary practice (first in China and the Far East and later in Africa). The renewed missiology has in turn influenced the missionary practice of the twentieth century, guided by apostolic policy. Some "missionary scholars" have even had a significant influence on the scientific discourse of their time.
La relation entre religion et science a beau être complexe et toujours actuelle, protestants et catholiques s'étaient rarement penchés sur le sujet. En se livrant à l'exercice dans ce livre, les auteurs ont fait de nouvelles découvertes sur la naissance et le développement de la missiologie. Celle-ci est décrite dans l'ouvrage comme un « projet de modernité », une forme contemporaine d'apologétique. Cette « apologétique scientifique » était le moyen par excellence de justifier l'existence des missions.
Cette publication aborde tant l'interaction avec les nouvelles disciplines scientifiques (historiographie, géographie, ethnologie, anthropologie, linguistique) et les nouvelles théories scientifiques (évolutionnisme de Darwin, héliocentrisme) que le rôle de la papauté et l'inspiration de la pratique missionnaire (d'abord en Chine et en Extrême-Orient, puis en Afrique). Cette missiologie « enrichie » a à son tour agi sur la pratique missiologique du XXe siècle, soutenue dans cette voie par la politique apostolique. Certains « missionnaires savants » ont même influencé de manière remarquable le discours scientifique de leur époque.
Giancarlo Collet (University of Münster), Neil Collins (Missionary Society of St. Columban), Mariano Delgado (Université de Fribourg), Norman Etherington (University of Western Australia), Patrick Harries (Universität Basel), Jan A.B. Jongeneel (Universiteit Utrecht), Philippe Laburthe-Tolra (Université de Paris V Sorbonne), Eugène Lapointe (Université Saint-Paul Ottawa), Magnus Lundberg (Uppsala University), David Neuhold (Université de Fribourg), Peter Nissen (Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen), Armin Owzar (Université de Paris 3), Olivier Rota (Université d'Artois), Marc Spindler (Universiteit Leiden), Jan van Butselaar (Protestantse Kerk in Nederland), An Vandenberghe (Zorgbedrijf OCMW Antwerpen), Dirk Van Overmeire (KADOC-KU Leuven), Frans J. Verstraelen (State University of Zimbabwe), Laurick Zerbini (Université Lyon 2), Jean-François Zorn (Institut Protestant de Théologie-Faculté de Montpellier).
The attraction and repulsion between the Roman Catholic Church and modernity in Europe between 1750 and 2000.
Emiel Lamberts (1941), professor emeritus of contemporary history at KU Leuven, is an international expert in the political and religious history of Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries.
His work and the central themes in his research are the starting point in World Views and Worldly Wisdom. No less than eighteen leading international researchers put different aspects of his work in the spotlight. A recurring theme, however, is the attraction and repulsion between the Roman Catholic Church and modernity in Europe between 1750 and 2000.
The ambivalent relationship with modernity is therefore the leitmotiv of the first part of this volume, whereas the second part focuses on the repositioning of the Church and the tensions between religion, ideology and politics. In this way the volume reflects Lamberts's fascination for the history of political institutions as well as his research on Christian democracy. The contributions address - in a comparative way and from a transatlantic viewpoint - this broad period of time in history, which gave rise to different social movements and different models of society in Belgium and elsewhere.
Winfried Becker (Universität Passau), Bruno Béthouart (Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale), Hans Blom (Universiteit van Amsterdam), Alfredo Canavero (Università degli Studi di Milano), Philippe Chenaux (Pontificia Università Lateranense, Roma), Andrea Ciampani (LUMSA, Roma), Jo Deferme (KU Leuven), Jan De Maeyer (KADOC KU Leuven), Henk De Smaele (Universiteit Antwerpen), Carine Dujardin (KADOC KU Leuven), Jean-Dominique Durand (Université Lyon 3), Michael Gehler (Jean Monnet Chair, Universität Hildesheim - Institut für Neuzeit- und Zeitgeschichtsforschung, Wien), Susana Monreal (Universidad Católica del Uruguay), Patrick Pasture (KU Leuven), Patrick M.W. Taveirne (The Chinese University of Hong Kong), Peter Van Kemseke (Europese Commissie, KU Leuven), Vincent Viaene (Attaché bij het Huis van Koning Filip), Els Witte (Vrije Universiteit Brussel)
International exchange in European cultural life in the 19th and 20th centuries
From the early nineteenth century till the middle of the twentieth century, cultures in Europe were primarily national. They were organized and conceived of as attributes of the nation states. Nonetheless, these national cultures crossed borders with an unprecedented intensity even before globalization transformed the very concept of culture. During that long period, European cultures have imported and exported products, techniques, values, and ideas, relying on invisible but efficient international networks. The central agents of these networks are considered mediators: translators, publishers, critics, artists, art dealers and collectors, composers. These agents were not only the true architects of intercultural transfer, they also largely contributed to the shaping of a common canon and of aesthetic values that became part of the history of national cultures. Cultural Mediation in Europe, 1800-1950 analyses the strategic transfer roles of cultural mediators active in large parts of Western Europe in domains as varied as literature, music, visual arts, and design.
Die Studie untersucht die Ordnung des mittelalterlichen Rechtswissens in vorgratianischen Sammlungen, dem Decretum Gratiani sowie den Glossen und Summen zum Dekret. Im Mittelpunkt steht also das kirchenrechtliche Wissen, das sich zwischen 1000 und 1215 grundlegend änderte: Während kirchliche Rechtsregeln um 1000 in Kanonessammlungen linear gespeichert waren, wurden sie im 12. Jahrhundert zu komplexem Rechtswissen miteinander verknüpft. Auf Basis einer umfassenden Auswertung der handschriftlichen Überlieferung wird der Wandel des Rechtswissens anhand des päpstlichen Jurisdiktionsprimats und des Zölibats analysiert. Zudem zeigt die Untersuchung den Einfluss der artes liberales und der Rhetorik bei der Ordnung kirchlicher Normen. Die Studie gibt so einen faszinierenden Einblick in die Entstehung der Kanonistik und zeigt zugleich die Vielfältigkeit und Vielschichtigkeit des juristischen Wissens im Hochmittelalter.
Un regard renouvelé sur la cour de Bruxelles à l'époque moderne
Les Gouverneurs-généraux des Pays-Bas espagnols du dix-septième siècle bénéficiaient du conseil de leur confesseur. Ce directeur spirituel, issu du clergé régulier, tint un rôle significatif dans l'organisation du pouvoir politique bruxellois.
Cette étude, qui couvre la période courant des archiducs Albert et Isabelle jusqu'au dernier Gouverneur-général issu de la famille royale, soit les années 1598 à 1659, propose, pour la première fois, une approche transversale de la fonction. L'auteur démontre que ces religieux furent souvent impliqués dans des questions politiques et courtisanes de première importance. En exposant combien les parcours individuels de ces religieux furent singuliers, Pierre-François Pirlet souligne également le polymorphisme de leur action. Enfin, ce volume met en évidence les liens étroits qu'entretinrent ces conseillers avec la Couronne espagnole, les autorités ecclésiastiques et les membres de la cour de Bruxelles.
The degree to which the late colonial era affected Europe has been long underappreciated, and only recently have European countries started to acknowledge not having come to terms with decolonisation. In Belgium, the past two decades have witnessed a growing awareness of the controversial episodes in the country's colonial past. This volume examines the long-term effects and legacies of the colonial era on Belgium after 1960, the year the Congo gained its independence, and calls into question memories of the colonial past by focusing on the meaning and place of colonial monuments in public space.
The book foregrounds the enduring presence of "empire" in everyday Belgian life in the form of permanent colonial markers in bronze and stone, lieux de mémoire of the country's history of overseas expansion. By means of photographs and explanations of major pro-colonial memorials, as well as several obscure ones, the book reveals the surprising degree to which Belgium became infused with a colonialist spirit during the colonial era.
Another key component of the analysis is an account of the varied ways in which both Dutch- and French-speaking Belgians approached the colonial past after 1960, treating memorials variously as objects of veneration, with indifference, or as symbols to be attacked or torn down. The book provides a thought-provoking reflection on culture, colonialism, and the remainders of empire in Belgium after 1960.
Mise au point définitive de l'épisode central de la transmission du savoir grec en Occident.
Les relations entre la bibliothèque papale à la fin du XIIIe siècle et le célèbre traducteur Guillaume de Moerbeke constituent l'épisode central de la transmission du savoir grec en Occident. Ce livre présente une mise au point définitive de la question, en prenant comme cas d'étude une traduction de Moerbeke dont le modèle grec, actuellement conservé à Florence, faisait partie de la bibliothèque de pape Boniface VIII.
Small power diplomacy in seventeenth century Europe.
War, State and Society in Liège is a fascinating case study of the consequences of war in the Prince-Bishopric of Liège and touches upon wider issues in early modern history, such as small power diplomacy in the seventeenth century and during the Nine Years' War.
For centuries, the small semi-independent Holy Roman Principality of Liège succeeded in preserving a non-belligerent role in European conflicts. During the Nine Years' War (1688-1697), however, Liège's leaders had to abolish the practice of neutrality. For the first time in its early modern history, the Prince-Bishopric had to raise a regular army, reconstruct ruined defence structures, and supply army contributions in both money and material.
The issues under discussion in War, State and Society in Liège offer the reader insight into how Liège politically protected its powerful institutions and how the local elite tried to influence the interplay between domestic and external diplomatic relationships.
« Splendide famille. Le père, un gars flamand, simple, robuste - la mère profondément religieuse. Les enfants tous débordants de vie. Ils ont un tel courage, pour braver les Français avec leur conviction religieuse. »
Ainsi parlait le père jésuite Frans Van den Brande, l'un des aumôniers des paysans flamands du Nord de la France dans l'entre-deux-guerres. Son activité avait un objectif simple: s'assurer que les émigrés belges restassent catholiques et flamands. L'initiative n'était pas neuve. Elle s'inscrivait dans une longue tradition de l'église belge de continuer à se préoccuper du sort de leurs paroissiens qui avaient choisi d'émigrer en France.
Ce qui avait commencé comme un simple encadrement religieux pour les émigrés vivant désormais à Paris ou dans la banlieue industrielle de Lille, s'étendit après la Grande Guerre, aux régions rurales du Nord de la France. Le fondement de cet engagement était une méfiance profonde vis-à-vis du pays d'accueil.
Rester catholique en France explore la nature et l'effet de ces initiatives sur la toile de fond de la riche histoire de la migration belge en France. Cette histoire sonne à la fois étonnante et familière, révolue et pourtant pertinente dans le débat actuel sur l'immigration. Ce travail illustre clairement comment l'étrangeté est perçue à partir de différences minimes, mais surtout comment une identité des migrants trouve forme à partir des interactions entre pays d'origine et pays de destination.
The role of Christian Democracy in the collapse of the Communist Bloc.
Debates on the role of Christian Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe too often remain strongly tied to national historiographies. With the edited collection the contributing authors aim to reconstruct Christian Democracy's role in the fall of Communism from a bird's-eye perspective by covering the entire region and by taking "third-way" options in the broader political imaginary of late-Cold War Europe into account. The book's twelve chapters present the most recent insights on this topic and connect scholarship on the Iron Curtain's collapse with scholarship on political Catholicism.
Christian Democracy and the Fall of Communism offers the reader a two-fold perspective. The first approach examines the efforts undertaken by Western European actors who wanted to foster or support Christian Democratic initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe. The second approach is devoted to the (re-)emergence of homegrown Christian Democratic formations in the 1980s and 1990s. One of the volume's seminal contributions lies in its documentation of the decisive role that Christian Democracy played in supporting the political and anti-political forces that engineered the collapse of Communism from within between 1989 and 1991.
Contributors: Andrea Brait (University of Innsbruck), Alexander Brakel (Konrad Adenauer Foundation, Israel), Ladislav Cabada (Metropolitan University Prague), Giovanni Mario Ceci (Università degli Studi Roma Tre / IES-Rome), Kim Christiaens (KU Leuven), Michael Gehler (University of Hildesheim), Thomas Gronier (UMR SIRICE), Piotr H. Kosicki (University of Maryland), Slawomir Lukasiewicz (John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin), Anton Pelinka (Central European University in Budapest), Johannes Schönner (Karl von Vogelsang Institute), Arturas Svarauskas (Lithuanian University of Educational Science), Helmut Wohnout (Austrian Federal Chancellery / Karl von Vogelsang Institute)
In popular imagination few phenomena are as strongly associated with medieval society as knighthood and chivalry. At the same time, and due to a long tradition of differing national perspectives and ideological assumptions, few phenomena have continued to be the object of so much academic debate. In this volume leading scholars explore various aspects of knightly identity, taking into account both commonalities and particularities across Western Europe. Knighthood and Society in the High Middle Ages addresses how, between the eleventh and the early thirteenth centuries, knighthood evolved from a set of skills and a lifestyle that was typical of an emerging elite habitus, into the basis of a consciously expressed and idealised chivalric code of conduct. Chivalry, then, appears in this volume as the result of a process of noble identity formation, in which some five key factors are distinguished: knightly practices, lineage, crusading memories, gender roles, and chivalric didactics.